The objective of the study was to investigate whether low-level 915 MHz GSM-modulated radiofrequency (RF) radiation impairs microtubular structure and affects normal cell growth. V79 cells were exposed to a GSM-modulated field in a Gigahertz Transversal Electromagnetic Mode cell (GTEM cell) for 1, 2, and 3 h. Signal generator combined with power and chip modulator generated the electromagnetic field (EMF). The electric field strength was adjusted to 10, 20, and 30 V/m, and the average specific absorption rate (SAR) was calculated to be 0.23, 0.8, and 1.6 W/kg. The structure of microtubule proteins was assessed by indirect immunocytochemistry, and cell growth was determined based on cell counts taken every day over six post-exposure days. Three-hour radiation exposure significantly altered microtubule structure regardless of the electric field strength. Moreover, on the third post-exposure day, three-hour radiation significantly reduced cell growth, regardless of field strength. The same was observed with two-hour exposure at 20 and 30 V/m. In conclusion, 915 MHz GSM-modulated RF radiation affects microtubular proteins in a time-dependent manner, which, in turn, affects cell proliferation. Our future research will focus on microtubule structure throughout the cell cycle and RF radiation effects on mitotic spindle.
Many personal care products on the market contain endocrine disrupting chemicals, including parabens. Parabens are well known chemical additives used as preservatives. They have been found in mammary glands and breast cancer tissues. At the same time, the general public is increasingly exposed to plastic micro- and nanoparticles generated during plastic production and waste disposal. Exposure to chemical cocktails is a realistic scenario of high public health interest, in which many types of compounds such as these two may exhibit synergistic or additive adverse effects. This study evaluated the effects of plastic nanoparticles, parabens, and their mixture on the viability and proliferation of two human breast cancer cell lines: MDA-MB 231, which lacks oestrogen receptors, and MCF-7, which expresses these receptors. Parabens increased proliferation of oestrogen-sensitive breast cancer cells, and this effect became synergistic in the presence of plastic nanoparticles. The mechanism behind synergy may be related to the translocation and adsorption properties of nanoplastics, which served as a Trojan horse to expose cells to parabens more efficiently. These preliminary findings support growing evidence warning about the urgent problem of human exposure to combinations of plastic waste and contingent chemicals.