Ozone Pretreatment of Wheat Straw and its Effect on Reducing Sugars in Hydrolyzate
The aim of this contribution is to measure the effect of the pretreatment of lignocellulosic phytomass utilization for bioethanol production. The first step of bioethanol production from lignocellulosic phytomass is pretreatment of raw material. The next step is hydrolysis, and then the fermentation of sugars follows. The physical (grinding, breaking) and chemical (ozonization) processes were used as pretreatment. Ozone was applied to the aqueous suspension of lignocellulosic phytomass before and during the hydrolysis. Ozone pretreatment did not perform as effectively as expected. The results of study, which are focused on evaluation of reducing sugars are included in this contribution.
Preliminary Ecotoxicity and Biodegradability Assessment of Metalworking Fluids
The main aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of activated sludge from sewage treatment plant to degrade selected MWFs (ecotoxicity to bacterial consortium) and to evaluate the ecotoxicity by Lemna minor-higher plant. After evaluating the ecotoxicity, biodegradations rate with activated sludge was assessed on the basis of COD measurement. Preliminary study of measuring the ecotoxicity according to OECD 221 by Lemna minor shows effective concentration of Emulzin H at the rate of 81.6 mg l-1, for Ecocool 82.9 mg l-1, for BC 25 about 99.3 mg l-1, and for Dasnobor about 97.3 mg l-1. Preliminary study of measuring the ecotoxicity by bacterial consortium according to OECD 209 (STN EN ISO 8192) shows effective concentration of Blasocut BC 25 at the rate 227.4 mg l-1. According to OECD 302B, the biodegradations level of Emulzin H, Ecocool and BC 25 achieved 80% in 10 days. It can be stated that these MWFs have potential to ultimate degradation, but the statement has to be confirmed by a biodegradability test with other parameters than COD, which exhibits some disadvantages in testing O/W emulsions.
Microalgae are photosynthetic autotrophic microscopic organisms growing in a range of aquatic and terrestrial habitats. They produce a huge complex of compounds in their surroundings which are of important use to humans. Their commercial use lies in human nutrition, animal and aquatic feed, in cosmetics products, natural pigments, pharmaceutical industry, bio-fertilizer for extracting high-value molecules, stable isotope biochemicals, and for the synthesis of antimicrobial, antiviral, antibacterial and anticancer drugs. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a simple, effective and economically advantageous method for harvesting the algal products. Magnetic separation is a simple separation process. Different synthesis methods have been used by researchers to obtain magnetic particles of varying size and shapes according to the algae to be studied. Chemical co-precipitation method has been the most commonly used method, which helps in synthesizing magnetic particles of the micro to nano range. Naked, coated and surface modified are the general types of magnetic particles used for algal harvesting with its own advantages and disadvantages.
Kristína Gerulová, Adriána Mihálková, Magdaléna Šergovičová, Alexander Guoth and Zuzana Nádašská
Ecotoxicity and Biodegradability Assessment of Metalworking Fluids by Activated Sludge Bacteria
The main aim of this study was to evaluate toxicity of metalworking fluids to bacterial consortium of activated sludge according to OECD 209 (STN EN ISO 8192) and a potential of the same sludge to degrade a part of the fluids according to OECD 302B.
Toxic impact can affect different responses, particularly the inhibition of respiration measured from the oxygen consumption in a closed bottle. The degradation rate was calculated from COD according to the authors such as van der Gast and Ian Thompson (1, 2) who tested the degradability of some MWFs in bioreactors by measuring the COD. The lowest toxic MWF's were Cimstar 597 and Emulzin H (the highest tested concentration was below EC50), then Zubora TXS (EC50 - 11 349 mg l-1), Aquamet LAK-E (EC50 - 5 228 mg l-1), Adrana D 407 (EC50 - 4 351 mg l-1) followed, and finally, Hocut 3380 (EC50 - 2 339 mg l-1) was assessed as the most toxic.
Important in this test (OECD 302B) is that the starting concentration of the tested substance must not decrease below 20% after 3 hours of cultivating. After that, it is impossible to distinguish biological degradation of organic matter from abiotic elimination from the suspension through adsorption. Tested were 8 MWFs of similar concentration and different addition of activated sludge - 0.25 g l-1, 0.50 g l-1 and 1.00 g l-1. The test showed that, after the first 3 hours of cultivating, adsorption grew with the increasing amount of inoculums, except of Akvol B (the decrease of the starting concentration after the first 3 hours of cultivating was the lowest of all and below 20%). It can be stated that, according to the test basic conditions, all the tested MWFs have a potential to ultimate degradation.
Tomáš Boleman, Jozef Fiala, Lenka Blinová and Kristína Gerulová
Building a Laboratory-Scale Biogas Plant and Verifying its Functionality
The paper deals with the process of building a laboratory-scale biogas plant and verifying its functionality. The laboratory-scale prototype was constructed in the Department of Safety and Environmental Engineering at the Faculty of Materials Science and Technology in Trnava, of the Slovak University of Technology. The Department has already built a solar laboratory to promote and utilise solar energy, and designed SETUR hydro engine. The laboratory is the next step in the Department's activities in the field of renewable energy sources and biomass. The Department is also involved in the European Union project, where the goal is to upgrade all existed renewable energy sources used in the Department.
Part II – Biocides, corrosion inhibitors and neutralizing agents
Kristína Gerulová, Eva Buranská and Maroš Soldán
The exploration of 209 available Material safety data sheets of 85 straight oils, 46 emulsions, 51 semi-synthetics and 27 synthetics was carried out to provide a report on the most used components defined as dangerous substances. As many as 217 of different substances of which 15 were identified as biocides, 17 as corrosion inhibitors or neutralizing agent, 17 were lubricity improvers and 38 different base fluids, lubricity solvents or surfactants, while 93 substances were not identified specifically and 37 substances occurred only once. This article is focused on the list of biocides, neutralizing agents and corrosion inhibitors identified in all types of MWFs and their possible health effects.
The issues of cutting environment and a suitable choice of cutting conditions by drilling are the main subjects of the article. Attention is paid to the application of the drilling process into the carbon steel. Analysed were the phenomena that adversely affect the tool life. The article demonstrated solutions how to remove these adverse effects. The multicriteria optimisation of input factors (cutting fluid concentration, cutting speed) for a defined target function (tool life) was applied. The measured values were subjected to mathematical–statistical analysis (ANOVA). Based on the implemented experiment and study of this issue, we determined the combinations of input factors, which achieved minimal values of target functions. Based on the implemented experiment and study of this issue, we also determined the combinations of input factors, which achieved minimal values of target functions. Based on this allegation, the most appropriate combination of the following input factors was proved: concentration 6.3 % and cutting speed 100 m/min.
Alica Bartošová, Lenka Blinová and Kristína Gerulová
Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used in this study to identify and determine spectral features of Chromochloris zofingiensis (Dönz) Fucíková et L.A. Lewis (SAG 211-14, Gottingen, Germany), Acutodesmus obliguus (Turpin) Hegewald (SAG 276-1, Gottingen, Germany) and Chlorella sorokiniana (K. Brandt) Pröschold et Darienko (SAG 211-40c, Gottingen, Germany). Polysaccharides and lipids from these three algae species were determined using Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) with ATR accessory with diamante crystal in spectral range from 400 – 4000 cm−1 and resolution 4.
Exploration of 209 available Material safety data sheets of 85 straight oils, 46 emulsions, 51 semi-synthetics and 27 synthetics was carried out to provide a report on the most widely used components defined as dangerous substances. As many as 217 of different substances of which 15 were identified as biocides, 17 as corrosion inhibitors or neutralizing agent, 17 were lubricity improvers and 38 different base fluids, lubricity solvents or surfactants, while 93 substances were not identified specifically and 37 substances occurred only once. This article is focused on the list of base fluids in straight oils and their possible health effects.
Lenka Blinová, Alica Bartošová and Kristína Gerulová
Production of biofuel from renewable sources is considered to be one of the most sustainable alternatives to petroleum sourced fuels. Biofuels are also viable means of environmental and economic sustainability. Biofuels are divided into four generations, depending on the type of biomass used for biofuels production. At present, microalgae are presented as an ideal third generation biofuel feedstock because of their rapid growth rate. They also do not compete with food or feed crops, and can be produced on non-arable land. Cultivation conditions (temperature, pH, light, nutrient quantity and quality, salinity, aerating) are the major factors that influence photosynthesis activity and behaviour of the microalgae growth rate. In this paper, we present an overview about the effect of cultivation conditions on microalgae growth.