Importance of Animation Actions in the Operation of Hungarian Local Action Groups
The EU LEADER initiative has been running for 20 years and plays an important role in the development of European rural areas, however, in countries joining to the EU after 2004 it is still a relatively new phenomenon. In Hungary, for example, the LEADER+ programme was launched in 2005 with an experimental phase (called a "LEADER type initiative") and has developed to be a fully applied EU programme only in the current programming period. This paper explores the implementation of the LEADER programme in eastern Hungary. The examined Local Action Groups face diverse challenges concerning human, social, physical and financial capital, networks and social learning. The study investigates the opportunities and threats faced by the LAGs, with special regard to institutions, governance and applied initiatives. The roles of the LAGs within the social, economic and cultural context of given areas are examined through Lukesch's (2007) model FOG - forms of governance. The model is a tool to explore the interrelationships local partnership, local needs and local socio-cultural environment. The results of the FOG test show that the prevailing mode of governance in the examined LAGs emphasises animation actions as important elements of operation. Although the importance of animation actions is underlined by the result of the test, their presence between the initiatives is less than it should be. Good examples of animation actions are given: participatory video and a case study of its Hungarian application are introduced. Finally the role of Universities in animation actions is emphasised and closer relation of them with RD networks is called for.
Judit Sárándi-Kovács, László Nagy, Ferenc Lakatos and György Sipos
During a regular survey of declining forests in 2011, sudden dieback symptoms were observed on scattered wild cherry trees (Prunus avium) in a mixed deciduous forest stand, located in the flood plain area of the Rába River, in northwest Hungary. In this study, we correlated both soil conditions and presence of Phytophthora spp. to dieback of cherry trees. Two Phytophthora species, P. polonica and P. plurivora, were isolated from the rhizosphere soil of the dying trees. By contrast, only P. polonica was recovered from the necrotic tissues of symptomatic roots. Stem and root inoculation tests on cherry seedlings showed pathogenicity of both species, although P. polonica proved to be more virulent. This is the first report of natural infections of P. polonica.
Judit Sárándi-Kovács, Ferenc Lakatos and Ilona Szabó
This paper reports on the current situation of the Phytophthora species occurring in a declining common alder (Alnus glutinosa) stand in North-West Hungary. The stand was affected by a severe epidemic caused by Phytophthora alni in the late 1990s. The authors evaluated the health condition of the forest stand and collected soil samples from the rhizosphere of twenty selected trees two times per year in 2011 and in 2012 in order to isolate Phytophthora species. A diverse Phytophthora community was found in the soil consisting of eight species with different aggressiveness and with different ecological demands. Pathogenicity tests confirmed the role of the collected strains in the decline of the alder stand.
Judit Sárándi-Kovács, Ilona Szabó and Ferenc Lakatos
This paper reports on a two-year monitoring of Phytophthora species occurring in the catchment area of the Rák Brook near Sopron. P. gonapodyides, P. lacustris, P. plurivora and P. pseudosyringae were found in the course of surveys completed in the vegetation period of 2011 and 2012. Diversity profiles and cluster analysis were calculated in order to compare the Phytophthora communities detected at different sites and times. Seasonal differences were observed in the species compositions. Temperature data and basic hydrological parameters were found to determine the presence or absence of waterborne Phytophthora species in the catchment area of the Rák Brook. Pathogenicity of the Phytophthora species discovered was confirmed and evaluated against sessile oak seedlings.
The paper reports on the occurrence and impact of Phytophthora species in a declining eastern black walnut (Juglans nigra) stand in West Hungary. The health condition of the trees was investigated and soil samples were taken from the rhizosphere of the trees two times per year in 2011 and 2012 in order to isolate Phytophthora species. Altogether 20 trees were selected for investigations. The species identity of the isolates was determined by morphological and molecular methods. Phytophthora cactorum and Phytophthora plurivora were found as supposedly responsible for the decline of the trees. The abundance of the two species was changing at the different sampling times, presumably due to the different weather conditions. The intraspecific diversity of both species was estimated based on the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequences of the isolates.
Judit Keller, Katalin Kovács, Katalin Rácz, Nigel Swain and Monika Váradi
This article examines workfare schemes in rural Hungary and their contribution to relieving rural poverty. It does so on the basis of an analysis of European Union statistics and a series of semi-structured interviews which were conducted in 2013-2015 as part of a larger project investigating the contemporary state of rural Hungary. The paper comprises four sections: following a short description of the methodology, regional disparities and deprivation in rural areas are introduced with the help of a typology on deprivation and Eurostat data, thus providing evidence for European comparison. Following this, the main findings of our extensive qualitative research into workfare policies in rural Hungary are introduced and discussed on the basis of related legislation4. The article finds that workfare schemes in the rural sector are unique to Central and Eastern Europe, and are especially favoured in Hungary; it also discovers that economists are correct in assessing that said workfare schemes create few new jobs. Nevertheless, they are ‘better than nothing’, and have become embedded in rural society, where they are appreciated by beneficiaries and local officials alike. They necessarily make a paternalistic distinction between the deserving and undeserving poor, and the more commercially-oriented schemes raise issues of market distortion.
Burnout syndrome has an increasing incidence among intensive therapists because of high expectations and stress which leads to physical, mental and emotional exhaustion. Our aim was to examine the causes and severity of burnout in intensive care units.
Maslach Burnout Inventory questionnaires were distributed among intensive care workers of an university and a town hospital. Socio-demographic data were also collected.
The questionnaires were completed by 67 professionals, 28 doctors, 39 nurses. 43.4% suffered serious burnout, 23.52% high level of depersonalization, only 19.11% were satisfied with their accomplishments. Females showed higher incidence of burnout, especially those with chronic diseases (OR=3.33). According to our data, burnout was not related to family status and working hours, however there was significant correlation between satisfaction and weekly relaxation time (p = 0.0115).
Burnout syndrome is spreading among intensive care employees, therefore its prevention should be a priority.
Early recognition and intervention in sudden cardiac arrest is crucial for survival. The majority of these cases happen at the victims’ home or in public places, and the first person to act is usually a bystander. The purpose of this study was to assess and to compare bystander’s and third-year medical students’ (who attended first aid courses and training as first year students) knowledge about cardiopulmonary resuscitation in Tîrgu Mureş. Material and methods: We used a questionnaire, which included 28 questions and was filled in voluntarily by 335 people. We investigated previous cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) experience, willingness to help in an emergency situation and basic knowledge about CPR techniques. Results: Only 15% of bystanders were trained in CPR. The majority (94%) of them knew when they have to resuscitate a person and the correct position the person be in. The location of chest compressions was known by 39% of bystanders and by 78% of third-year medical students, the exact rate of chest compressions by 14% of bystanders and by 66% of medical students. 49% of bystanders had driving license, and even though first aid training was required at driving school, their knowledge was barely better than those who did not have one. Conclusions: Bystander’s knowledge on cardiopulmonary resuscitation is generally poor. To improve it, CPR training courses are needed in the community.
Although the tendency that the population migrate from rural to urban areas is typical world wide, the globalised economy creates new circumstances and opportunities for rural areas as well. The ‘new rural economy’ therefore needs new infrastructure to support it. The authors of the paper have a common interest in how enterprise hubs could help the development of entrepreneurship in the 21st century from two different directions, from physical and from social aspects. Building on the experience gained along enterprise hubs in cities, the hypothesis behind the study is, that creating enterprise hubs from existing buildings in rural settlements could help the development of rural entrepreneurship. To examine the hypothesis two case studies following a period of two years (enterprise hub development in Debrecen and Noszvaj) were carried out. In line with other studies in this field, result shows that even well-designed physical spaces are not enough for change, and initiators, hosts or facilitators are needed, as they play an important role in focusing on the real interaction network and enabling more synergies to happen.
Victor Raicea, Judit Kovacs, Liviu Moraru and Horatiu Suciu
Introduction. Perioperative myocardial injuries are one of the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery, the most common etiology being the poor myocardial protection during aortic crossclamp. During aortic crossclamp progressive accumulation of lactate and intracellular acidosis are well-known phenomena, and are associated with alteration of myocardial contractile function. Our objective was to study the coronary sinus lactate levels as a predictor of postoperative hemodynamic outcome in open-heart surgical patients.
Material and methods. We performed a prospective clinical trial, including 142 adult patients with elective cardiac surgery. Anterograde cardioplegia was administered in 82 patients, retrograde cardioplegia in 60 (in 30 patients it was administrated intermittently and in 30 continuously). Blood was collected simultaneously from the aortic cardioplegic line (inflow) and from coronary sinus or the aortic root (outflow) before aortic crossclamp, after crossclamp at every 10 minutes and after crossclamp removal at 0 and 10 minutes. All patients were operated on cardiopulmonary bypass with cardiac arrest, using warm-blood cardioplegia for cardioprotection.
Results. Lactate levels showed increasing values during aortic crossclamp, and a rapid decline after crossclamp removal. The incidence of low cardiac output was significantly higher in patients with lactate levels that exceeded 4 mmol/L. In patients who died in the postoperative period, lactate level was even higher (5 mmol/L), with only a modest recovery after crossclamp removal.
Conclusion. Monitoring lactate level in coronary sinus blood is a reliable method and has a good prognostic value regarding postoperative morbidity and mortality in open heart surgery