Konrad Ćwirko, Elwira Tomczak, Daniela Szaniawska and Ryszard Buczkowski
This paper evaluates ceramic membrane performance and fouling mechanisms in the ultrafiltration of model oil-in-water solutions with addition of NaCl. First, the work estimated the effect of main process parameters, i.e. transmembrane pressure, cross-flow velocity and NaCl content in the feed on oil rejection and permeate flux using 23 experimental design. The ultrafiltration experiments were carried out using pilot installation with commercial tubular ceramic 300 kDa membrane. Ultrafiltration data obtained using experimental design technique was used to determine the regression coefficients of polynomial equations. These equations give information on non-conjugated as well as conjugated effects of two operating parameters and one feed parameter on ceramic membrane performance in ultrafiltration process of model oil-in-water-NaCl solutions. Moreover, these equations can help to determine optimal conditions for ultrafiltration process from the point of view of membrane permeability and selectivity. Next, ultrafiltration results were analyzed using resistance-in-series model. It was found that the process is membrane resistance limited. It was also stated that, resistance caused by reversible fouling is greater than irreversible fouling resistance. Finally, pore blocking models based on modified Hermia’s equation were used to determine membrane fouling mechanism responsible for permeate flux decline with ultrafiltration time. In investigated system ceramic membrane fouling was caused by complete and intermediate pore blocking mechanisms.
Oily wastewaters from different onshore and offshore installations and from maritime transport pose a serious threat to the environment so they must be treated by multistage separation also including membrane processes. The main advantages of such membranes are high performance and selectivity, high resistance for temperature and pressure, resistance for acids, bases and solvents, long service life and for application - significant reduction of industries and transport environmental impact. This work presents the results of the process of separation of oil from the emulsion with NaCl addition. Research was performed with a use of laboratory installation with ceramic 300 kDa membrane. The analysis concerned performance and selectivity of a membrane in the function of time and test results have been subsequently compared with the requirements of the IMO.