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  • Author: Kinga Grabska x
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Introduction. The problem university students’ drinking in Poland has evoked greater interest lately. Numerous studies conducted in the recent years have indicated an increase in consumption of high-proof alcoholic beverages among students.

Aim. The aim of the study was to explore the influence of alcohol over on risky behavior among first and fourth year students of the Medical Faculty at the Medical University in Lublin during the academic year 2011/2012.

Material and methods. The study looked at 120 students, 45 men and 75 women; 60 people from the first and 60 people from the fourth year of the Medical Faculty. The method of an author’s original questionnaire, which was fully anonymous, was used. Answering 22 questions included in the questionnaire was voluntary, those completing the questionnaires could refuse to participate in the study at any time.

Results. Statistically significant correlations between students who abused alcohol and their risky behaviors were found.

Conclusions. There are some negative consequences of young people’s drinking alcohol and the most frequent symptoms They include: driving under the influence, engaging in risky sexual behaviors or starting fights. Several respondents admitted that they were passengers while the driver was intoxicated. Students being in a state of intoxication more often engaged in sexual activities. Alcohol consumption might also result in irrational decisions which could endanger health and lives e.g.: jumping from a roof. A few students of the fourth year were occasionally involved in gambling. A number of students admitted undergoing medical assistance after alcohol consumption.


Introduction. Stress is a complex and ubiquitous phenomenon. According to the World Health Organization, it is one of the most common problems of the 21st century. It is no surprise that the majority of people associate stress with something entirely negative. However, there is no life without stress and a certain amount of stress in life is necessary.

Aim. The aim of the study was to assess the occurrence of stress among students of the Medical University from the faculties of Medicine, Pharmacy, Dentistry and Public Health, and evaluate its influence on physiological changes and behavior, and present the ways of coping with it.

Material and methods. The study comprised 240 students from the faculties mentioned above. Stress was measured by means of a questionnaire consisting of 14 fully anonymous questions which concerned factors causing stress, ways of reacting to it and methods of coping with it.

Results. It was found out that stress as an intense emotional reaction to a number of stimuli triggers some physiological and psychological adaptation responses among students.

Conclusions. The findings of this research suggest that pharmacy students are the most exposed to high levels of stress. Oral examination is considered to be the most stressful form of testing students’ knowledge. According to survey respondents, the most common symptoms of stress include abdominal pain palpitations, sleep disorders, excessive sweating, hand shaking. The majority of respondents listed the following activities to beat stress: sports, sleeping or listening to music, as most effective in reducing stress. Some of the respondents also turned to substances, such as tobacco or alcohol. The respondents admitted that they have also used drugs


Introduction. The organizational structure of the National Emergency Medical system ensures the health of citizens. Unfortunately, patients present dangerous behaviors, thereby damaging the safety of workers during medical emergencies. Aggression and violence, in spite of the widespread perception of it as a negative phenomenon undermining the individual’s health, is an indispensable part of everyday life and work environment.

Aim. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of acts of aggression that led to violence, and the types of occurrence of this phenomenon, which influenced the staff of the National Emergency Medical system.

Material and methods. The study was conducted in 2015/2016 among the employees of the National Emergency Medical system in Lublin, Puławy and Zamość; the research tool was a questionnaire survey.

Results. On the basis of the conducted research, it can be concluded that the employees of the National Emergency Medical system are, to a large extent, exposed to acts of aggression on the part of patients. Almost all the employees of the Accident & Emergency Units (98.2%) and almost all the employees of the Medical Rescue Teams (98.3%) encountered aggression from the patients.

Conclusion. There observed a phenomenon of aggression as well as verbal and physical violence on the part of patients towards health care workers. Alcohol and drugs increased both verbal and physical aggression among patients.

Employees of the National Emergency Medical system have indicated aggression as an intrinsic element in the work environment.