With a flow estimated at 1200 m3∙s−1 and a height of 8 m downstream, the flood that occurred on October 10, 2008 spread along the M’zab River over a length of more than 180 km. Material and human damage is visible, but its effects on the quality of the waters of the alluvial layer remain unknown: this is the purpose of this paper. Samples of groundwater were taken during the period 2005–2012 in 4 oases of the valley. Physicochemical analyses were performed using molecular and flame spectroscopic methods and also volumetric methods on water samples. The results obtained were interpreted using histograms and hydrochemical diagrams, such as the Avignon software (L.H.A) (version 4, 2008). Low effect of flood on the water quality of the alluvial aquifer was manifested by concentrations of magnesium sulphate and calcium chloride. On the other hand, there is an accumulation of salts infiltrated by sewage except for the zone of Bouchen. The diagrams show that there is an improvement in water quality in this area.