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Muhammad Ahsan Khan

Abstract

The maximal commutative subalgebras containing only Toeplitz matrices have been identified as generalized circulants. A similar simple description cannot be obtained for block Toeplitz matrices. We introduce and investigate certain families of maximal commutative algebras of block Toeplitz matrices.

Open access

Muhammad Aqeel Ahmad Khan

Abstract

In this paper, we propose and analyse an iterative algorithm for the approximation of a common solution for a finite family of k-strict pseudocontractions and two finite families of generalized equilibrium problems in the setting of Hilbert spaces. Strong convergence results of the proposed iterative algorithm together with some applications to solve the variational inequality problems are established in such setting. Our results generalize and improve various existing results in the current literature.

Open access

Nazish Kanwal, Muhammad Ammad Khan and Zhihao Zheng

Abstract

The agricultural sector in Pakistan is not well-established to provide full employment opportunities and sufficient income for needed living standard to the rural population. Stagnant agricultural productivity and low returns in farming have led rural residents to look for alternative livelihoods, especially non-farm employment. With this background, the present study is an endeavor to empirically determine the factors of non-farm income diversification of rural farm households in Peshawar district of Pakistan. The study was undertaken in four villages and data was amassed from 196 small farming households by using the multi-stage sampling technique. The data were analyzed using the descriptive statistical measures, the mean of income shares approach and the ordinary least squares regression analysis. The results indicate that in all the selected villages, the pattern of non-farm employment was more or less the same; however, the income from non-farm employment activities had an important contribution towards incrementing the absolute income of farm households. Non-farm income diversification is hence crucial for sustaining livelihoods and an integral dimension for invigorating rural economies. Therefore, the study recommends the promotion of non-farm employment as a good strategy for supplementing the income of small farmers without shifting attention from agriculture.

Open access

Muhammad Umar, Peter Betts, Malik Muhammad Saud Khan, Muhammad Amjad Sabir, Muhammad Farooq, Asif Zeb, Umair Khan Jadoon and Shoaib Ali

Abstract

Stratigraphical and sedimentological analyses of Late Neoproterozoic successions in Lesser Himalaya are combined herein with palaeogeographical considerations and comparisons with equivalent successions in India and South China. The succession starts with the Hazara Formation, which contains complete and incomplete Bouma sequences suggesting its deposition in deep marine turbidite settings. The overlying Tanawal Formation, rich in massive sandstone, shale and siltstone, was deposited in shallow marine conditions, as indicated by the presence of parallel lamination, large scale tabular, trough cross- and hummocky cross-stratifications. The Tanawal Formation facies shift laterally from proximal (south-southeast) to distal (north-northwest). The glaciogenic Tanaki Boulder Bed, overlying the Tanawal Formation, was deposited during the Maronian glaciation. It is equivalent to the Blaini Formation of India, and to the Sinian diamictites of South China. The Abbottabad Formation of Cambrian age overlies the Tanaki Boulder Bed, and is composed of dolomite, chert nodules and phosphate-rich packages; similar successions are documented in India and South China at the same stratigraphical interval. The similarities of the Neoproterozoic successions of Lesser Himalaya (both in Pakistan and India) and South China suggests their possible proximity during the break-up of Rodinia and the assembly of the Gondwana Supercontinent.

Open access

Muhammad Khan, Hee Young Lee and Jung Han Bae

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze the methods for increasing the volume of Inward Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Pakistan. Two different approaches are investigated: firstly, identifying the main barriers to investing in Pakistan, and secondly, examining the key success factors (KSFs) of the top FDI recipients in the world. Both parametric and non-parametric statistical analyses are applied. The study findings provide guidance to the implementation of common KSFs for increasing inward FDI. The paper discusses cultural barriers in developing markets for investors’ collective performance, the consequence and significance of cultural barriers in emerging markets, and the requirement for social adaptation for successfully attract inward FDI in developing counties. This paper identifies and proposes suggestions for resolving the internal problems of Pakistan’s investment climate that act as impediments to increased FDI volume.

Open access

Muhammad Siyar, Asghari Maqsood and Sadaf Khan

Abstract

Graphene, a single atom thick sheet is considered a key candidate for the future nanotechnology, due to its unique extraordinary properties. Researchers are trying to synthesize bulk graphene via chemical route from graphene oxide precursor. In the present work, we investigated a safe and efficient way of monolayer graphene oxide synthesis. To get a high degree of oxidation, we sonicated the graphite flakes before oxidation. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results confirmed graphene oxide formation and high degree of oxidation. Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) results revealed a monolayer of graphene oxide (GO) flakes. The sheet like morphology of the GO flakes was further confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The Hall effect measurements were performed on the GO film on a silica substrate to investigate its electrical properties. The results obtained, revealed that the GO film is perfectly insulating, having electrical resistivity up to 8.4 × 108 (Ω·cm) at room temperature.

Open access

Khan Muhammad and Akram Shah

Abstract

Backbreak, defined as excessive breakage behind the last row of blastholes in blasting operations at a quarry, causes destabilisation of rock slopes, improper fragmentation, minimises drilling efficiency. In this paper an artificial neural network (ANN) is applied to predict backbreak, using 12 input parameters representing various controllable factors, such as the characteristics of explosives and geometrical blast design, at the Dewan Cement limestone quarry in Hattar, Pakistan. This ANN was trained with several model architectures. The 12-2-1 ANN model was selected as the simplest model yielding the best result, with a reported correlation coefficient of 0.98 and 0.97 in the training and validation phases, respectively. Sensitivity analysis of the model suggested that backbreak can be reduced most effectively by reducing powder factor, blasthole inclination, and burden. Field tests were subsequently carried out in which these sensitive parameters were varied accordingly; as a result, backbreak was controlled and reduced from 8 m to less than a metre. The resulting reduction in powder factor (kg of explosives used per m3 of blasted material) also reduced blasting costs.

Open access

AK Khan, SA Khan, Na Muhammad, No Muhammad, J Ahmad, H Nawaz, A Nasir, S Farman and S Khan

Abstract

Human hereditary leukonychia is a rare nail disorder characterized by nail plates whitening on all finger and toe nails. Inheritance pattern is both autosomal dominant and recessive. To date, the only gene, phospholipase C, δ1 (PLCD1), on chromosome 3p22.2 has been reported to be involved in hereditary leukonychia. In the present study, a family of Pakhtun ethnicity, carrying leukonychia phenotype was investigated. The family inherited the phenotype in an autosomal dominant fashion. Affected individuals exhibited characteristic features of hereditary leukonychia with involvement of nails on both the hands and feet. Sequence analysis of DNA detected a p.Cys209Arg mutation, reported for the first time in a Pakistani Pashtun family.

Open access

Naureen Shehzadi, Khalid Hussain, Muhammad Islam, Nadeem Irfan Bukhari, Muhammad Tanveer Khan, Muhammad Salman, Sabahat Zahra Siddiqui, Aziz-Ur Rehman and Muhammad Athar Abbasi

Abstract

The study describes the development and preliminary validation of a simple reverse-phase chromatographic method for determination of a novel drug candidate, 5-[(4-chlorophenoxy) methyl]-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiol (OXCPM), in bulk and stressed solution, in order to find out the intrinsic stability behavior of the compound. Isocratic elution was carried out at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min-1 through a Promosil C18 column maintained at 25 °C, using the mobile phase comprising acetonitrile and aqueous o-H3PO4 (pH 2.67) (1:1, V/V). Detection was performed at 258 nm. The response of the detector was linear in a concentration range of 1.25-50.00 μg mL-1 with the correlation coefficient of 0.9996 ± 0.0001. Cumulative intra-day, inter-day and inter-instrument accuracy (99.5 ± 1.0, 100.2 ± 1.0 and 100.3 ± 0.4 %, resp.) with RSD less than 5 % indicated that the method was accurate and precise. The resolution and selectivity factor (>2 and >1, resp.), particularly in copper metal- and dry-heat-stress solutions, depicted the selectivity of the method. OXCPM remained stable under hydrolytic (acidic and neutral pH, ≤ 37 °C), photolytic and moist heat stress conditions. Under alkaline conditions (hydrolytic and photolytic), polar products were formed that eluted very fast through the column (tR < 3.75 min). At room temperature, the compound was susceptible to oxidation by hydrogen peroxide and transition metals. The ionogram of most of the stress solutions indicated the presence of a product having m/z 256, which might be a result of N- or Smethylation or -SH oxidation. The results of the study indicate that the method is selective, sensitive and suitable to be used for determination of OXCPM in bulk and under stress conditions.

Open access

Muhammad Luqman Sohail, Muhammad Sarwar Khan, Muhammad Avais, Muhammad Yasir Zahoor, Irfan Khattak, Aqeela Ashraf and Omer Naseer

Abstract

Introduction: Leptospirosis affects a wide range of mammals, humans, and even a few poikilothermic animal species. In Pakistan, serological studies of equine leptospirosis have reported a prevalence of over 40%, but no study has ever been conducted towards molecular detection of Leptospira in horses. Material and Methods: Blood samples from 128 horses were screened using ELISA and 41 positive samples were examined for the presence of leptospiral DNA using specific primers for 16S rRNA gene. Results: Out of 41 tested samples, 20 samples were found to be PCR-positive, revealing a fragment of 306 bp after gel electrophoresis. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of positive samples revealed circulation of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in Pakistani horses. No evidence of circulation of intermediate species was found in this study. Conclusion: This study reports the first molecular evidence of equine leptospirosis in Pakistan and lays ground for further research in this area. It also confirms the efficiency of 16S rRNA for the diagnosis of equine leptospirosis.