Knowledge-Based Collaborative Lean Manufacturing Management (KBCLMM) System
The objective of this research paper is to demonstrate the application of hybrid Knowledge-Based System, Gauging Absences of Pre-Requisites (GAP), and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) approaches for selecting the improvement programs for Collaborative Lean Manufacturing Management (CLMM) System. In this research, a generic Knowledge-Based System is developed to measure the level of CLMM adoption in automotive manufacturers compared to the ideal system. Using the embedded GAP and AHP technique, the key lean manufacturing improvement programs can be prioritised by using both qualitative and quantitative criteria. The analysis covers the planning stage of the KBCLMM. The utilisation of the approach is demonstrated with an illustrative example.
The objectives of the study were to measure the efficiency in trade and transport through China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) and to ascertain efficiency in trade and economic development through developed transport infrastructures. The present study was conducted in Peshawar, Pakistan. The data was collected from the relevant developing sectors and stakeholders through CPEC including investors of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Chamber of Commerce and Peshawar Railway Station track employees. Majority of bi-variate analysis through chi-square test result showed that there was a strong and significant association between the project of CPEC and efficiency in trade and transport in terms of economy. Similarly, a strong and significant association was found between the development of transport routes through CPEC and smooth transportation of goods and services. Furthermore, a strong and significant association was found between CPEC project and improvement in travelling potential. Similarly, a significant association was found between development in transport infrastructure and fastness and reliability in business travelling. In the same way, a significant association was found between CPEC and increase in the geographical size of the labour market. As in the chain, a strong and significant association was found between the development of transport infrastructures through CPEC and increase in labour force productivity along with an increase in the range of choice of individual and firms. This could come true that CPEC as a project would ensure smooth efficiency transportation of trade goods and services in terms of reducing time distance and cost. CPEC as a project should not be only limited to economic activities, rather it should contribute to the overall socio-economic development of the region.
The study describes the development and preliminary validation of a simple reverse-phase chromatographic method for determination of a novel drug candidate, 5-[(4-chlorophenoxy) methyl]-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiol (OXCPM), in bulk and stressed solution, in order to find out the intrinsic stability behavior of the compound. Isocratic elution was carried out at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min-1 through a Promosil C18 column maintained at 25 °C, using the mobile phase comprising acetonitrile and aqueous o-H3PO4 (pH 2.67) (1:1, V/V). Detection was performed at 258 nm. The response of the detector was linear in a concentration range of 1.25-50.00 μg mL-1 with the correlation coefficient of 0.9996 ± 0.0001. Cumulative intra-day, inter-day and inter-instrument accuracy (99.5 ± 1.0, 100.2 ± 1.0 and 100.3 ± 0.4 %, resp.) with RSD less than 5 % indicated that the method was accurate and precise. The resolution and selectivity factor (>2 and >1, resp.), particularly in copper metal- and dry-heat-stress solutions, depicted the selectivity of the method. OXCPM remained stable under hydrolytic (acidic and neutral pH, ≤ 37 °C), photolytic and moist heat stress conditions. Under alkaline conditions (hydrolytic and photolytic), polar products were formed that eluted very fast through the column (tR < 3.75 min). At room temperature, the compound was susceptible to oxidation by hydrogen peroxide and transition metals. The ionogram of most of the stress solutions indicated the presence of a product having m/z 256, which might be a result of N- or Smethylation or -SH oxidation. The results of the study indicate that the method is selective, sensitive and suitable to be used for determination of OXCPM in bulk and under stress conditions.
Use of Degussa P25 titanium-dioxide nanopowder in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) photoanode improves efficiency of the DSSC cell. Annealing of titanium dioxide is required for fabrication of crystalline mesoporous thin film photoanode on transparent conducting glass using doctor blade method. Different annealing temperatures provide different structural, morphological, and optical properties of the photoanode, which may influence the efficiency of the cell. In this paper, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopicanalysis have been carried out to investigate annealing temperature effect on various structural parameters, mole-fraction, phase-content, and optical bandgap of the TiO2 film photoanode. It was observed that depending on annealing temperature, theratio of polymorphs of Degussa P25 changed substantially. For the change in annealing temperature from 350 °C to 600 °C, variations occurred in crystallite size from 11.9 nm to 24.9 nm, strain from 0.006 to 0.014, specific surface area from 62.77 m2·g-1 to 125.74 m2·g-1, morphology index from 0.49 to 0.64, dislocation density from 5 × 1013 line/m2 to 8 × 1015 line/m2, crystallite per unit surface area from 2 × 1013 m-2 to 2.5 × 1014 m-2, and optical bandgap from 2.4 eV to 3.1 eV.
Porous photoanodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) can adsorb specific type of natural or organic dyes. Adsorption of the dye results in a change of the structural, morphological and optical characteristics of the photoanode. In this work, we present a comparative study on the adsorption effect of natural dye (Curcuma Longa sp.) on the structural, morphological and optical properties of mesoporous titanium dioxide (TiO2) photoanode on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass. A number of investigations including XRD, UV-Vis spectroscopy, EDS, and SEM were carried out to observe the variations due to adsorbed dye on TiO2 surface. XRD characterization revealed the effect of dye adsorption on specific surface area (SSA), crystallite size, and morphological index (MI). In this case, increasing SSA with decreasing particle size was found for both dye adsorbed and dye free DSSC photoanode samples. Also, the MI and SSA were found to be directly and inversely proportional to the crystallite size respectively. UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy showed that dye adsorption changes the light absorption, transmittance, and optical bandgap of the photoanode. Average atomic mass percentage of titanium (Ti) and oxygen (O) obtained from EDS analysis proved the presence of TiO2 in the mesoporous photoanode. In SEM images, significant morphological changes of mesoporous TiO2 surface appeared because of dye adsorption.
Efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) depends on several interrelated factors such as type and concentration of dye, type and thickness of photoelectrode and counter electrode. Optimized combination of these factors leads to a more efficient cell. This paper presents the effect of these parameters on cell efficiency. TiO2 nanoporous thin films of different thicknesses (5 μm to 25 μm) were fabricated on indium doped tin oxide (ITO) coated glass by doctor blading method and characterized by inverted microscope, stylus surface profiler and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Natural organic dye of different concentrations, extracted from turmeric, was prepared with ethanol solvent. Different combinations of dye concentrations and film thicknesses along with different types of carbon catalyst have been investigated by I-V characterization. The result shows that the cell made of a counter electrode catalyst material prepared by candle flame carbon combined with about 15 μm thick photoelectrode and 100 mg/mL dye in ethanol solvent, achieves the highest efficiency of 0.45 %, with open circuit voltage of 566 mV and short circuit current density of 1.02 mA/cm2.