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  • Author: Khalid Iqbal x
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The Relationship between Money Supply, Price Level and Economic Growth In Pakistan: Keynesian versus Monetarist View

Abstract

The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between money supply, price level and economic growth in the context of Pakistan by using Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model, covered a period of 1980 to 2016. The results confirm the long-run relationship between the variables while using broad money supply as a response variable. However, in the price and income modeling, the variables do not support the cointegration relationship between the variables. The causality results confirmed the unidirectional relationship running from income to money supply, which implies that income do causes money supply in the short run, whereas money supply leads to inflation to support Monetarist view of inflation in a country. The results conclude that economic growth is imperative to stabilize money supply and price level through sound economic policies in a country.

Open access
Challenges That Make/Break the Athlete’s Quest to Become an Entrepreneur: A Qualitative Study About Fans’ Perceptions

Abstract

Athletes are a new type of celebrity in the world. Following other celebrities, there are several examples of athletes who have used their persona of fame to go a step further with their so-called personal brands and actually launch products carrying their names. As athletes are considered brands in themselves, these sorts of activities (i.e., introducing a product brand) are considered as an extension of the athlete’s brand. Given the nature of the research, this study employed a qualitative design. A purposeful convenience sampling technique was employed to select study participants according to a set of predetermined criteria. The final sample comprised nine fans. The fans identified five major factors that could be important in the context of an athlete’s decision to start his/her own brand. The five identified factors that could decide the fate of an athlete’s brand extensions were the athlete’s origin, extension fit, gender, performance, and impression. According to fans, these factors play an important role in the athlete’s venture as an entrepreneur. The study suggests that although fans understand that athletes are brands in themselves, Pakistani fans are not fond of the idea of athletes becoming entrepreneurs due to the fans’ emotional attachment to the athletes. As this is the first study expressing fans’ perspectives in the context of athlete brand extension, this study is an addition to the academic literature and theories of athlete branding and athletes as entrepreneurs.

Open access
Interpretation of Gamma Index for Quality Assurance of Simultaneously Integrated Boost (SIB) IMRT Plans for Head and Neck Carcinoma

Abstract

Objective: The Gamma Index is prerequisite to estimate point-by-point difference between measured and calculated dose distribution in terms of both Distance to Agreement (DTA) and Dose Difference (DD). This study aims to inquire what percentage of pixels passing a certain criteria assure a good quality plan and suggest gamma index as efficient mechanism for dose verification of Simultaneous Integrated Boost Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy plans.

Method: In this study, dose was calculated for 14 head and neck patients and IMRT Quality Assurance was performed with portal dosimetry using the Eclipse treatment planning system. Eclipse software has a Gamma analysis function to compare measured and calculated dose distribution. Plans of this study were deemed acceptable when passing rate was 95% using tolerance for Distance to agreement (DTA) as 3mm and Dose Difference (DD) as 5%.

Result and Conclusion: Thirteen cases pass tolerance criteria of 95% set by our institution. Confidence Limit for DD is 9.3% and for gamma criteria our local CL came out to be 2.0% (i.e., 98.0% passing). Lack of correlation was found between DD and γ passing rate with R2 of 0.0509. Our findings underline the importance of gamma analysis method to predict the quality of dose calculation. Passing rate of 95% is achieved in 93% of cases which is adequate level of accuracy for analyzed plans thus assuring the robustness of SIB IMRT treatment technique. This study can be extended to investigate gamma criteria of 5%/3mm for different tumor localities and to explore confidence limit on target volumes of small extent and simple geometry.

Open access
Correlation between MELD and UNa/K ratio in predicting renal dysfunction in cirrhotic patients

Abstract

Background

Renal dysfunction is one of the dreaded complications of cirrhosis. MELD is a validated chronic liver disease (CLD) severity scoring system. Urinary (U) Na/K ratio closely correlates with renal dysfunction in terms of low GFR in cirrhotic patients.

Patients and Methods

All consecutive patients with decompensated cirrhosis between the age of 18 to 70 years, of either gender, presenting in the outpatients’ department of Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi, from June 2015 to June 2017 were included. The MELD score was calculated and the UNa/K ratio less than 1 was taken as surrogate marker of renal dysfunction. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS (version 20.0).

Results

A total of 71 patients were enrolled. The mean age was 43.79 years and majority were male (67.6%). The most common cause of liver cirrhosis was HCV, found in 42 (59.2%) patients. The mean CTP score was 10.48 ± 2.069 (range: 6–14) with majority of the patients following in class C, that is, 48 (67.6%). Mean MELD score was 21.75 ± 8.96 (range: 8–43). In 57 patients (80.3%), MELD score was > 15.The mean serum creatinine and mean serum sodium were 1.5 ± 1.1 mg/dl (range: 0.37–5.3) and 133.79 ± 6.9 mmol/L (range: 112–152), respectively. Mean urinary sodium and urinary potassium were 38.60 ± 46.64 mmol/L (range: 5–181) and 38.15 ± 23.9 mmol/L (range: 4.3–112), respectively. In majority of study population, UNa/K ratio was below 1, that is, in 52 patients (73.2%). Statistically significant correlation was documented between MELD score and UNa/K ratio (ɤ = 0.34, P = 0.004).

Conclusion

The inverse correlation between MELD scores and UNa/K ratio indicates that patients with CLD and higher MELD scores might have renal dysfunction. This finding however should be corroborated by large scale studies.

Open access
Dyspepsia amongst end stage renal disease undergoing hemodialysis: Views from a large tertiary care center

Abstract

Background and Objectives

Gastrointestinal symptoms are common in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) among which dyspepsia is frequently observed. The aim of the study was to determine the frequency and associations of dyspepsia in ESRD patients using the Leeds questionnaire.

Methods

All ESRD patients on maintenance hemodialysis were consecutively enrolled in the study. Leeds questionnaire was used to interrogate the patients for the assessment of dyspepsia. Mean and standard deviation were calculated for age, body mass index (BMI), disease duration and number of hemodialysis sessions. Independent t-test and Chi square tests were used for statistical analysis.

Results

Total number of patients was 200, out which 118 (59.3%) were male. The mean age was of 41.4 years. According to the Leeds questionnaire, dyspepsia was present in 62 (63.9%) patients. Younger patients (age 20–40 years) more frequently had dyspeptic symptoms (61.5% patients), retrosternal pain (156 patients, 78.0%), regurgitation (127 patients, 63.5%), dysphagia (67 patients, 33.5%), and nausea (142 patients, 71.0%). Patients presented with intermittent pattern of symptoms in 179 (89.5%) cases, while continuous symptoms in 6 (3.0%). Dyspepsia was associated with aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels > 25 U/L (P = 0.001), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels > 28U/L (P = 0.000) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels > 34 U/L (P = 0.002). On multivariate analysis, urea, creatinine, and presenting symptoms of dysphagia and belching showed significant statistical association with dyspepsia.

Conclusion

Dyspepsia is a common problem affecting patients with end stage renal disease and is associated with raised serum AST, ALT and GGT in such patients.

Open access