Background. Self-medication is defined as the use of medicines without a doctor’s prescription. The non-opioid analgesics (NOAs) constitute one of the most commonly self-prescribed drugs globally. This study aims to determine the prevalence of NOAs self-medication, and also explore the purpose and sources of the self-prescribed NOAs among health professionals in Sokoto metropolis, Nigeria.
Methods. Data obtained from a cross-section of 205 health professionals in Sokoto metropolis, Nigeria, were used for this study. The study tool used was a well-structured questionnaire. Data analysis was done using the SPSS version 20 software.
Results. Only 36.6% of the 205 subjects were within the age range of 26 to 30 years, 38.0% were nurses. The majority (85.9%) of the subjects had self-prescribed NOAs, of which 6.8% of them had a positive history treatment for NOA overdose. Patent medicine stores (43.0%) were reported to be the most common source of acquisition of self-prescribed NOAs. The majority (63.9%) of the subjects used NOAs to get relieved from headaches. Paracetamol (79.0%) and Diclofenac (65.9%) were the top two self-prescribed NOAs among the subjects.
Conclusion. Non-opioid analgesic self-prescription is a popular practice among health professionals in Sokoto metropolis, Nigeria. All the various routes of access (e.g. hospital pharmacy) to NOAs need to be revisited in order to curb the irrational use of NOAs in Nigerian society.
Background: Historically, the Rod of Asclepius is considered as the correct symbol of Medicine. Unfortunately, many medical/health institutions in the world have erroneously interchanged the Rod of Asclepius symbol with erroneous symbols (e.g. Caduceus) to depict Medicine. This study aims to assess the official logos (i.e. institutional symbols) of university teaching hospitals in Nigeria and determine if these logos actually depict the true symbol of Medicine.
Methods: This study was a cross-sectional online survey of teaching hospitals in Nigeria on their official logos. A total of 40,556 operating hospitals and clinics in Nigeria were identified. After systematic screening, a total of 35 hospitals were identified as university teaching hospitals and used for the survey. Official information about the geopolitical zone, ownership and official logo of the selected hospitals was obtained (via online and offline search). Data collected was analysed using SPSS version 22 software.
Results: Out of the 35 surveyed university teaching hospitals, only 7 did not have snake(s) as part of their official logo. However, out of the remaining 28 hospitals that have snake(s) as part of their official logos, only 57.1% (16/28) of them have only one snake in their logo. Exactly half of the surveyed hospitals having logos with two entwined snakes (i.e. Caduceus) were owned by the federal government. Bivariate analysis showed that there exists statistically significant relationship between the geopolitical zone where a hospital is situated and the number of entwined snakes indicated in their official logo (p-value=0.034).
Conclusion: This study shows that the correct symbol of Medicine is not universally indicated in the official logos of the university teaching hospitals in Nigeria.
To determine the prevalence of the assumption that ‘reading too much’ could cause madness (i.e., severe mental illness) among medical, nursing, and community health students, and also explore the relationship between these students’ status on this assumption and their academic performance.
This study was a cross-sectional study conducted among a convenient sample of medical, nursing, and community health students (n = 122) studying within the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital campus, Sokoto, Nigeria. Study tool was a paper questionnaire, which obtained information on the demographic profile, awareness of ‘madness’, assumption that ‘reading too much’ is a cause of madness, and self-rating of the participants’ academic performance in their current course of study. Data collected was analysed using the SPSS version 20 software. Test of associations between variables were done using Chi square test.
The mean age of the 122 respondents was 27.3 years, majority (61.5%) of them were males, and 53.3% were medical students. More than half of the surveyed nursing students (54.2%) and community health students (55.6%), unlike the surveyed medical students (24.6%), had the assumption that reading too much could make them run mad. There was no statistically significant relationship between the assumption that ‘reading too much’ is a cause of mental illness and academic performance of the respondents.
Assumption that reading too much could cause madness is a fairly common phenomenon among the surveyed tertiary school students, irrespective of their level of academic performance. There exists the need to disabuse the minds of tertiary school students from the assumption that reading too much could make one run mad.
To explore the associations between previous dental visits and dental anxiety among patients presenting at the dental and maxillofacial surgery clinic of Department of Dental and Maxillofacial Surgery, Federal Medical Centre, Birnin Kebbi, Nigeria.
Materials and methods
This study was a cross-sectional study conducted among 172 patients. Study instrument was a 9-item structured questionnaire, which obtained information about the participants regarding their: demographic profile; previous dental experience; and dental anxiety status in a dental and maxillofacial surgery consulting room. Data collected were analyzed using the SPSS Version 20 Software. Associations between variables were evaluated using Chi-square statistics using a p < 0.05 to determine the level of statistical significance.
Roughly, six-tenth (57.6%) of the participants were males. The observed prevalence of dental anxiety among the participants was 47.7%. A history of pain experience during past dental treatment as well as a history of past dental visit were found to have statistically significant relationships with participants’ dental anxiety status (p-values < 0.05). However, the frequency of previous dental visits, a history of past dental treatment, and a history of use of intraoral injections in the course of past dental treatment were found to have no statistically significant relationship with participants’ status of dental anxiety (p-values > 0.05). Finally, the prevalence of dental anxiety among the groups of female folks with “a history of previous visit to a dentist” and “a history of pain experience in the past dental treatment” were found to be significantly higher than that observed among similar groups among the male folks (p-values < 0.05).
Previous experience of pain plays a major role of influence over dental anxiety experience among patients. Hence, dental practitioners need to pay more attention towards dental anxiety management among patients, especially women.
Background: Symbols play a very crucial role in the culture of a society, and the medical society is not an exception to this. In the world of Orthodox medicine, the Rod of Asclepius is regarded as the true symbol of medicine. However, there exists to be an issue of interchange of the correct medical symbol (i.e. Rod of Asclepius) with another similar symbol (i.e. the Caduceus). This study aims to explore medical students’ knowledge and opinion on the appropriate symbol of medicine.
Methods: This study was a cross-sectional survey of 84 medical students at the Usmanu Danfodiyo University (UDU), North-West Nigeria. Study tool was a paper questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed using the Epi info 7 Software.
Results: The mean (±SD) age of the participants was 23.7 (±3.4) years, 72.6% were males, and 73.8% were in their 4th year. Only 59.5% had interest in non-medical literature. Also, only 6.0% had doctors as their parents. The majority (88.1%) of the participants erroneously identified the Caduceus symbol as the most appropriate symbol of medicine. Furthermore, only 45.2% indicated that the Rod of Asclepius and the Caduceus symbols originated from ancient Greece. Virtually all (97.6%) the participants opined that the Caduceus symbol is the most popular symbol of Medicine. Finally, the majority (73.8%) of the participants recommended that a course on the History of Medicine should be added to the medical curriculum of their school.
Conclusion: This study found that the majority of the surveyed medical students did not know much about the historically correct medical symbol. This shows the need for awareness creation on the true symbol of medicine among medical students, and even the public-at-large.
Background: Tobacco smoking is an addictive behavior with heavy risks accompanying its prolonged practice. Unfortunately, more and more people are indulging in tobacco smoking habits despite the public health education programs going on worldwide about the dangers associated with tobacco smoking behavior. This study aims to survey active shisha smokers in Birnin Kebbi Local Government Area (LGA), Kebbi State, Nigeria, on the awareness of the harmful effects associated with shisha smoking.
Methods: This study was a survey of 45 active shisha smokers in Birnin Kebbi LGA. Snowballing technique was adopted in participants’ recruitment. Study instrument was a questionnaire. Data collected was analyzed using SPSS version 20 software.
Results: Majority (32/45) of the participants were males, 16 had secondary school education, and 19 were within age range of 15 to 24 years. The majority (25/45) of them began to smoke shisha at the age of 18 years or more; also, 20 participants smoked shisha in all the 30 days prior to their participation in this study. Less than half of the study participants knew that: shisha is a stimulant (6/45), shisha smoke contains carbon monoxide (10/45), and the liquid in shisha could be replaced with alcohol (15/45). However, more than half of the participants knew that shisha contains nicotine (23/45) and tobacco (25/45). Only 16, 13, 11, 9, 5, 10, and 13 participants knew that shisha smoking could lead to cancer, cardiovascular diseases, increase in the risk of infections, reduced baby weight in pregnancy, gum and mouth disease, eye disease and blindness, and harm to non-smokers, respectively.
Conclusion: Many of the active shisha smokers surveyed in this study began smoking shisha at a young age. Also, a significant proportion of them were unaware of the health hazards associated with shisha use; hence the need to educate them and even the Nigerian public on the dangers associated with shisha use.
To explore the reasons why shisha smokers indulge in shisha smoking habit, and to also explore their attitudes towards quitting shisha smoking habit
A total of 45 current shisha smokers participated in the study. The study tool was a paper questionnaire. Snowballing technique was the sampling method adopted in the recruitment of study participants. Data obtained was analyzed using the SPSS version 20 software
The mean (±SD) age of the participants was 25.8 (±5.5) years and majority (71.1%) of them were males. The top two reasons why the participants smoke shisha were: “for pleasure” (40%); and “to feel among” (33.3%). The majority (66.7%) of the participants wanted to quit shisha smoking habits. However, only 54.5% (18/33) of them indicated that they made efforts at quitting the behavior within the past one year. Also, only 66.7% (28/42) and 65.6% (21/32) of those participants who had a close friend and a close family member/relative that smoke shisha, respectively, wanted to quit shisha smoking habit
This study shows diverse reasons why shisha smokers engage in shisha smoking habit. Also, many of these smokers were willing to quit shisha smoking habits but, unfortunately, they are yet to quit the habit. This demonstrates the need for social support of shisha smokers in our environment towards quitting shisha smoking habit
Early career doctors (ECDs) are faced with many challenges due to their transition from undergraduate medical/dental studentship to being postgraduate doctors and being in an early phase of their career. The specific factors that affect ECDs in their careers and endeavors at the workplace range from poor remuneration, particularly in developing countries, to psychosocial problems (such as burnout [BO] syndrome). There is a dearth of information on BO among ECDs in Nigeria. This qualitative study aims to explore the opinions of ECDs in Nigeria on the causal/predisposing factors of BO, effects of BO, and strategies for mitigating BO among ECDs in Nigeria.
Using purposive sampling method, two sessions of focus group discussions (FGDs) involving 14 ECDs (key informants) holding key leadership positions and who were delegates of other ECDs in Nigeria were conducted to explore their experiences on psychological issues among ECDs. Data collected were transcribed and analyzed thematically.
BO is an issue of serious concern among ECDs in Nigeria. The causes of BO are diverse, some of which include low staff strength, prolonged work hours, wrong counseling, lack of job description and specification, and abuse of powers by trainers. In order to mitigate the issue of BO among ECDs, the respondents recommended that work policy review, medical workforce strengthening, stakeholder dialog on ECDs’ welfare, regular psychological review of ECDs, and provision of free yearly medicals need to be looked into. Conclusion: Our findings revealed that the participants considered BO issues among ECDs to be common, and it affected their performance and the overall quality of care in Nigeria health system. Based on our findings, there is an urgent need to mitigate the problem of emotional exhaustion among ECDs in Nigeria.
Introduction: Peer learning is an important component of the postgraduate medical curriculum, and it is considered as an integral part of learning in some countries. The practice of peer learning among postgraduate trainees, especially the resident doctors, is an area that has not been explored in Nigeria and other third world countries. This study aims to examine the practice, perception, and drivers of peer-to-peer training in Nigeria.
Methodology: This study was a national multi-centre and multi-disciplinary cross-sectional survey, conducted among resident doctors in Nigeria. Semi-structured questionnaires were used to obtain respondents’ biodata, perception and practice on peer learning. Data were analysed using SPSS version 23 software. Results were presented as frequency table and proportion, means, and standard deviation. Inferential statistics such as bivariate analysis was performed.
Results: Majority, 287 (73.2%), considered the peer education programme as an appropriate learning practice, 173 (45.9%) considered peer education programme integrated part of the training, while 350/383 (88.2%) engaged in a peer education programme. Statistically, a significant association was found between those who considered peer training as appropriate (p = 0.038) and those who considered peer education as an integral part of postgraduate medical training curriculum (p =0.009).
Conclusion: Peer learning is popular among resident doctors in Nigeria. Concerted efforts are needed to re-structure the residency training curriculum in order to maximize the benefits of this learning approach for an effective training programme.