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Agnieszka Hejduk and Kazimierz Banasik

Suspended sediment concentration and yield in snowmelt flood events in a small lowland river

Results of investigation on suspended sediment delivery from small lowland, agriculturally used catchment of Zagożdżonka River, located in central Poland, during snowmelt periods of 2001-2007 are presented. The study catchment's area, upstream of the well equipped gauging station at Czarna, is 23.4 km2. Suspended sediment concentration and sediment yield has been calculated and analysed for 15 snowmelt flood events. The relationship between suspended sediment concentration and the discharge has been analyzed. It has been found that the relation, in majority of the cases, has the form of clockwise hysteresis, however the existance of other types of hysteresis i.e. anticlockwise and "8" shape, have been also confirmed. Significant relation between suspended sediment yield and runoff volume of snowmelt flood events has been also found.

Open access

Agnieszka Hejduk and Kazimierz Banasik

Recorded lag times of snowmelt events in a small catchment

The hydrological and meteorological data collected in small, lowland catchment during snowmelt floods have been used to calculate lag time of runoff (Lag) and lag time of sediment yield (Lags). Both, Lag and Lags are important characteristics of the instantaneous unit hydrograph (IUH) and instantaneous unit sedimentgraph (IUSG). Field data from Zagożdżonka River catchment have been used to demonstrate the relationship between lag times. The results of investigation show that: a) there is a strong relationship between Lag and Lags; b) in most cases the value of a = Lags/Lag is smaller than 1; c) in case of snowmelt floods there was only poor correlation between parameter a and the total runoff depth (water supply).

Open access

Anna Sikorska and Kazimierz Banasik

Parameter identification of a conceptual rainfall-runoff model for a small urban catchment

As a consequence of city expansion, the conditions of catchments located in urban areas have been permanently changing. This leads to an increase of flood risk in an urban area resulting from overflows of small streams, which are not prepared to receive more water. Moreover, hydrological data from long-time period are usually not available for small streams in an urban area and are limited to the last few years or to the moment after introduced changes within catchment in relation to urbanization. Therefore, it becomes hardly possible to use direct methods of estimating flood flows for small streams, which needs a reach data set. For that reason, mathematical modelling is growing as a basic method of evaluation of flood flows in urban area with limited information of a catchment.

The object of this paper is to identify parameters of a conceptual model of rainfall-runoff process within a small ungauged urban catchment and to verify how chosen characteristics of a model depend on chosen rainfall characteristics. The results of modelling of pluvial flooding, conducted in a small urban catchment - Służew Creek catchment (located in Warsaw, Poland), have been presented in the paper. This catchment has been monitored by Department of Water Engineering and Environmental Restoration (Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW) for a few years.

Next, the results present a comparison of estimation of instantaneous unit hydrograph (IUH) by the Rao, Delleur and Sarma equations with the one established on recorded data. This empirical method consists of the ratio of urbanized area within catchment as well as in the duration and amount of an effective rainfall during a storm event. Moreover, including ratio of urbanized area allows user to adopt this method in a simple way to new conditions of the catchment, which is important as far as urban areas are considered.

Considered IUHs were based on the Nash model, in which catchment is depicted as a cascade of N linear reservoirs with the same retention parameter k. For separation of the effective rainfall from the recorded storm the CN-SCS method was applied. To compare two methods, IUHs were estimated basing on three hydrological years (2007-2009) for a Berensewicz Pond profile and the comparison was made on the base of an IUH characteristic value - Lag time.

The results of identification and verification of characteristics values of IUH (Lag and k) for Służew Creek catchment, presented in this paper, have indicated a statistical correlation between lag time and the sum of total and effective precipitation, and between k parameter and the sum of total and effective precipitation as well. Moreover, the analysis has shown that IUH characteristics estimated with the use of Rao, Delleur and Sarma equation has given promising results in comparison with the characteristics of measured IUH. Therefore, this method could be useful to estimate and predict flood flows in ungauged urban catchments in situation of limited information. However, this research needs further investigation and verification.

Open access

Kazimierz Banasik and Ngoc Pham

Modelling of the effects of land use changes on flood hydrograph in a small catchment of the Płaskowicka, southern part of Warsaw, Poland

This study concerns the influence of urbanized trend affected on the flood hydrograph in a small catchment in Warsaw. Based on recorded events a selected procedure for simulation rainfall-runoff process has been accepted for flood estimation. The Soil Conservation Services Curve Number method (SCS-CN) and empirical formulae for Nash model parameters, developed by Rao at al. were used to analyze the nine selected events from 2007 to 2009. The analysis confirmed usefulness of the selected procedure, implicated in a home developed computer program, for estimating flood hydrographs as responses of the small urban catchment to heavy rainfall events. Flood hydrographs were estimated for three various stages of land use. The results demonstrate that the peak flood flow would increase over eight times due to urbanisation of the catchment.

Open access

Ewa Kaznowska and Kazimierz Banasik

Streamflow droughts and probability of their occurrence in a small agricultural catchment

The goal of this work consists in quantitative analysis of the occurrence of droughts and their occurrence probability estimated for a small agricultural catchment on the basis of a multi-annual series of daily streamflows in the Zagożdżonka river at the Płachty Stare gauging station, in the context of observed changes in the stream regime during the multi-annual period 1963-2010. The Zagożdżonka river catchment is one of a few in Poland, with long-term records on rainfall and runoff. To identify streamflow droughts in daily discharge hydrograms, truncation level Q90% (discharge determined from the flow duration curve) was used. Minimum duration of drought amounting to 10 days, was the additional criterion for identification of droughts. The Nizowka2003 model was used for finding distributions of the probability of deficit volume and duration of maximum summer droughts for the Zagożdżonka river. The droughts in the small agricultural catchment under study concern only summer half-years and most often they are of short duration - up to 20 days. Longer droughts, lasting lightly over 2 months, can be expected - once per 10 years. The occurrence of a summer drought lasting almost all the season in the Zagożdżonka river is probable once per 100 years. A weak correlation between the minimum drought discharge and their duration was found.

Open access

Kazimierz Banasik and Andrzej Byczkowski

Probable annual floods in a small lowland river estimated with the use of various sets of data

The results of estimation of the probable annual flood flows with the use of various sets of data from a small agricultural lowland river are presented. The traditional statistical series are formed from the annual maximum (AM) flows of hydrological years. After examination of the homogeneity of the series, two sets of data were formed (AM1 of 34 elements and AM2 of 40 elements), which differed in the significance level of one of the stationary tests. The other series for flood frequency analysis has been formed by selecting peaks over threshold discharges (POT). A computer program, developed by IMGW (Institute of Hydrology and Water Management), and spreadsheet were applied for frequency analysis with the use of AM series and POT series, respectively. Results of computations with the use of AM1 and AM2 data indicate for nonsignificant differences in probable flood flows, and significant with the probable flood flow estimated with the POT data.

Open access

Kazimierz Banasik and J. Mitchell

Conceptual model of sedimentgraph from flood events in a small agricultural watershed

A procedure for predicting the sediment graph (i.e. the suspended sediment flux), from a small river catchment by heavy rainfall, has been developed using the concept of an instantaneous unit hydrograph (IUH) and dimensionless sediment concentration distribution (DSCD). A formula for instantaneous unit sedimentgraph (IUSG) is presented, and a procedure for estimating the sediment routing coefficient, which is a key parameter of the IUSG, based on measured data of rainfall-runoff-suspended sediment is applied. Field data from a small, field sized agricultural basin, lacated in center of Illinois has been used for analizing lag times for runoff (LAG) and sediment yield (LAGs). Assumptions about sediment generated during rainfall events are discussed.

Open access

Abdulvahed Khaledi Darvishan, Kazimierz Banasik, Seyed Hamidreza Sadeghi, Leila Gholami and Leszek Hejduk

Abstract

Although the possibility of measuring and analysing all parts of the rainfall, infiltration, runoff, and erosion process as a natural hydrologic cycle in field conditions is still one of the more unattainable goals in the hydrological sciences, it can be accomplished in laboratory conditions as a way to understand the whole process. The initial moisture content is one of the most effective factors on soil infiltration, runoff, and erosion responses. The present research was conducted on a 2 m2 laboratory plot at a slope of 9% on a typical sandy-loam soil. The effects of the initial soil moisture content on the infiltration, runoff, and erosion processes were studied at four levels of initial soil moisture content (12, 25, 33, and 40 volumetric percentage) and two rainfall intensities (60 and 120 mm h-1). The results showed a significant (p ≤ 0.05) correlation between rainfall intensity and downstream splash, with r = 0.87. The results reflected the theory of hydrological responses, showing significant (p ≤ 0.05) correlations with r =-0.93, 0.98, -0.83, 0.88, and 0.73 between the initial soil moisture content and the time-to-runoff, runoff coefficient, drainage as a part of the infiltrated water, downstream splash, and total outflow sediment, respectively.

Open access

Adam Krajewski, Hyosang Lee, Leszek Hejduk and Kazimierz Banasik

Abstract

Predicted small catchment responses to heavy rainfalls with SEGMO and two sets of model parameters. The study tests the ability of hydrological part of SEGMO (SedimentGraph Model), i.e. lumped parametric rainfall-runoff procedure of SEGMO to simulate design storm runoff in a Korean catchment. The aim of the investigation is to predict responses of small catchment of the Jeungpyeong river, located in central part of South Korea, with the area of 133.6 km2, to 100-year rainfall events, applying SEGMO and using two parallel approaches for model parameter estimation. The fi rst approach is based on catchment characteristics and USDA-SCS procedures, which is suitable for ungauged basins, and the other one is based on rainfall-runoff measurements. The way of estimation of model parameters has been demonstrated. Finally, the model outputs are compared. The difference in largest peak discharges obtained from SEGMO with the two sets of model parameters, i.e. when estimated on the base of catchment characteristics and USDA-SCS procedures, and on the base of rainfall-runoff measurements were relatively small, approaching 37%. This investigation can be seen as checking the uncertainties in model parameter estimation and their infl uence on fl ood fl ows.

Open access

Leila Gholami, Kazimierz Banasik, Seyed Hamidreza Sadeghi, Abdulvahed Khaledi Darvishan and Leszek Hejduk

Abstract

Mulches have extraordinary potential in reducing surface runoff, increasing infiltration of water into the soil and decreasing soil erosion. The straw mulches as a biological material, has the ability to be a significant physical barrier against the impact of raindrops and reduce the detachment of soil aggregates. The present study is an attempt to determine the efficiency of straw mulch as conservation treatment in changes in the splash erosion, time-to-runoff, runoff coefficient, infiltration coefficient, time-to-drainage, drainage coefficient, sediment concentration and soil loss. The laboratory experiments have been conducted for sandy-loam soil taken from deforested area, about 15 km of Warsaw west, Poland under lab conditions with simulated rainfall intensities of 60 and 120 mmh–1, in 4 soil moistures of 12, 25, 33 and 40% and the slope of 9%. Compared with bare treatments, results of straw mulch application showed the significant conservation effects on splash erosion, runoff coefficient, sediment concentration and soil loss and significant enhancement effects on infiltration and drainage. The results of Spearman-Rho correlation showed the significant (p < 0.05) correlation with r = –0.873, 0.873, 0.878 and 0.764 between rainfall intensity and drainage coefficient, downstream splash, sediment concentration and soil loss and with r = –0.976, 0.927 and –0.927 between initial soil moisture content and time-to-runoff, runoff coefficient and infiltration coefficient, respectively.