Report on "anthropometric failure" among rural 2-6 years old Indian Bauri caste children of West Bengal
This study was undertaken to determine the overall prevalence of undernutrition using the composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF) among the Bauri caste rural preschool children of the Purulia District, West Bengal, India. A total of 347 children (185 boys and 162 girls) aged 2-6 years were measured. Stunting, underweight and wasting were used to evaluate the nutritional status of the subjects (compared with children of the United States NCHS reference sample) and CIAF for the total children. Among the studied Bauri children, 39.2% were stunted, 51.2% - underweight and 26.6% - wasted. The CIAF showed a higher prevalence of undernutrition, with a total of 66.3% of Bauri caste preschool children suffering from at least one type of "anthropometric failure". Among the studied children only 33.7% showed no failure. Valuable health and nutrition promotional programs can be formulated based on the CIAF findings with the ultimate objective of reducing childhood undernutrition in a population of India.
Obesity is generally classified into generalized obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) and abdominal or central obesity (WC ≥90 cm for men and WC ≥80 cm for women) based on World Health Organization recommendation for Asians. Hypertension is one of the most common obesity-related complications, and about 30% of hypertensive individuals can be classified as being obese. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of different age groups (years) on the anthropometric and derived variables. It determined the correlation between anthropometric and derived variables and also estimated the frequency of central obesity and hypertension. Finally, it investigated the relationship between central obesity and blood pressure among rural Bengalee adults of Dirghagram village of Ghatal Block, Paschim Medinipur, West Bengal, India. The present cross-sectional study was undertaken among 310 rural adults (154 males; 156 females) aged over 18 years. Our study was carried out during March, 2017. Height (cm), weight (kg), waist circumference (cm), hip circumference (cm) and blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) were measured using standard procedures. One way ANOVA analysis on most of the anthropometric and derived variables showed a statistically significant increase from younger to older age group in both sexes (p<0.001;p<0.01; p<0.05). In addition to that, more females had central obesity using waist circumference (55.8% vs. 19.5%), waist hip ratio (87.2% vs. 35.7%), waist height ratio (73.7% vs. 44.2%), and conicity index (87.2% vs. 57.8%) criteria, and hypertension (52.5% vs. 27.3%). The prevalence of central obesity was much higher in case of hypertensive individuals. Therefore, the present study showed a high prevalence of central obesity among the rural adults of Dirghagram village. Furthermore, central obesity contributed in increasing hypertension among the villagers.
The nutritional status and socio-demographic profile of tribal people is an important issue in India due to their marginalization from main stream population with respect to varied facilities. However, data on their nutritional status and socio-demographic profile are limited. This review aims to give an overview of the prevalence of chronic energy deficiency (CED) using Body mass index (BMI) and various demographic profile of Indian tribes based on studies published hitherto. In total 76 studies were reviewed for mean BMI based on the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of the public health problem of low BMI, based on adult populations worldwide. The overall sex specific prevalence of CED showed that both the tribal females (52.0%) and males (49.3%) were passing through the critical situation with respect to nutritional status with females being more underprivileged.
In conclusion, although there is a gradual increase in knowledge about the nutritional and socio-demographic status of tribes since last decades; there is still paucity of data and information on more than approximately 600 tribes regarding their bio-social profile. However previous studies clearly indicate the need to enhance the health and nutrition status of the tribes by providing job opportunity and food security. Since the prevalence of CED was higher (critical to serious situation) in tribal populations, concerted efforts should also be made to improve the health status and nutrition uptake among them.
For nutritional assessment work for older population, it is important to be able to estimate body height based on knee height. The present report describes three equations for height estimation among older Bengalees based on knee height and compares the results with knee height based formulae developed for several other populations. Anthropometric measurements were analyzed from 114 (62 men and 52 women) older subjects aged >= 55 years. The subjects were randomly selected from two blocks (Contai I and Ramnagar I), at coastal area of Purba Medinipur District in West Bengal, India. A population specific formula for height was created based on knee height of the subjects. These estimated formulae from the present study and fourteen other previously reported formulae were also applied to these older population and the mean estimation errors were statistically compared. Analysis indicated that our derived formulae gave accurate estimation of height among the subjects.
Being a developing nation, rural India is still facing a serious health problem in form of undernutrition particularly among young children. To optimize this problem, the Central Government has been operating a nationwide nutritional intervention programme in the form of Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS) scheme. Unfortunately, it has failed to achieve the desired goal during last four decades. Therefore the present study was designed to measure the seriousness and severity of overall undernutrition using Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF) among the rural Bengalee preschool children of Sagar Block, South 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 656 preschool children (326 boys and 330 girls) aged 3 to 5 years. Height (cm) and weight (kg) measurements were taken according to standard procedure, age and sex specific 2 z-scores values of height-for-age, weight-for-height and weight-for-age were used to assess stunting, wasting and underweight, respectively, as per the World Health Organization Guidelines. CIAF was also computed as per standard methodology to assess the degree of undernutrition among the studied children. The overall age and sex combined prevalence of stunting, wasting, underweight and CIAF was 26.2%, 35.4%, 51.1% and 61.3%, respectively. CIAF showed a higher prevalence of undernutrition (61.28%) in comparison to other three indicators i.e., stunting, wasting and underweight. We conclude that the nutritional status of the subjects was not satisfactory. It was also established that the CIAF is a better indicator of nutritional status than traditional measures of stunting, wasting and underweight, because it determines overall (total) anthropometric failure.
The prevalence of stunting (low height-for-age) is a key indicator of long-term chronic undernutrition which reflects an anthropometric failure to reach linear growth potentials due to prolonged food deprivation and/or disease or illness during the early stage of life. The present study assesses the prevalence and socio-economic and demographic correlates of stunting among adolescents of the North-east India. This cross-sectional study was undertaken among 1,818 (830 boys; 988 girls) adolescents (aged 10-18 years) belonging to ethnically heterogeneous populations of Karbi Anglong district of Assam, using stratified random sampling method. Anthropometric measurements of height and weight were recorded using standard procedures. Socio-economic and demographic variables were obtained using pre-structured schedule. The age-sex specific L, M and S reference values were used to calculate height-for-age Z-score (HAZ). According to WHO, HAZ found to be <−2SD was classified as stunting. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, chi-square analyses, binary and step-wise multiple logistic regression analysis in SPSS (version, 17.0). The prevalence of stunting was observed to be significantly higher among boys (48.4%) than girls (37.8%) (p<0.01). Age-sex specific prevalence was found to be higher among boys than girls aged 14-18 years and contrary were observed among girls aged 10-14 years (p>0.05). The binary logistic regression analysis showed that several socio-economic and demographic variables were significantly associated with stunting (p<0.05). The step-wise multiple logistic regression analysis showed that sex (boys), age groups (13-15 years and 16-18 years), father’s occupation (cultivator) and Rupees ≤5000 household income was significantly associated with stunting (p<0.05). Appropriate nutritional intervention programmes and dissemination of knowledge at population level related to undernutrition are necessary to ameliorate their nutritional status.
Malnutrition is a leading cause of child mortality in India. To counteract this problem, a nutrition supplementation programme has been operating under the Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS) scheme in India since 1975. Recently, the Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF) has been implemented to measure the seriousness and severity of overall under-nutrition in a population. Since this index presents a more complete picture than the previous three conventional measures. CIAF is utililized in this study which focuses on the overall burden of under-nutrition determination in pre-school children in Purba Medinipur, West Bengal, India. Our study was conducted in 10 Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS) centres, commonly known as “Anganwadi”, in the villages of the Argoal Gram Panchayat at Patashpur - II block. The total sample of 225 Bengalee ethnic children aged between 3 and 6 years was composed of 115 girls and 110 boys. The overall age and gender-combined prevalence of stunting, underweight and wasting recorded was 30.7%, 42.7% and 12.0%, respectively, and these rates were considered high (30-39%), very high (≥ 40%) and high (10-14%), respectively. CIAF results revealed the same trend, with 50.2% of these children affected by anthropometric failure, with the prevalence of underweight, wasting and CIAF higher in boys than in girls. This 50.2% CIAF result highlighted that approximately half the study children were undernourished. Since this figure is much higher than that estimated by any of the three conventional indicators,, CIAF has thus proven a far better indicator in assessing the overall burden of under-nutrition in a population. The nutritional status of the children in this study requires serious remedial action.
Malnutrition has become one of the serious problems among children and adolescents internationally, especially in developing countries. India, a developing country covers 40% of undernourished children of the world. In India, tribal population is among the most deprived and undernourished people. The present study shows the prevalence of undernutrition among Kolam tribal children and adolescents by comparing different Body Mass Index (BMI) cut off points. Age and sex specific nutritional status of studied population shows 15.01% boys and 18.35% girls are in Chronic Energy Deficiency (CED) III category, 16.22% boys and 19.32% girls are in CEDII, 31.71% boys and 2.72% girls are in CEDI only 0.96% boys and 1.69% girls are in overweight category respectively. Undernutrition is not limited to young children, even adults are also severely underweight in developing countries. Health and nutrition of today’s adolescent girls may have great impact on the quality of next generation. Proper nutritional programs and health policies are needed to be implemented among tribals to solve the problem of undernutrition and similar studies should be planned in other underprivileged sections worldwide.
Lip print pattern (LPP) is unique to each individual. For decades, forensic experts have used LPP for personal identification to solve criminal cases. However, studies investigating ethnic variation in LPP are scanty. Our study wanted to investigate variation in LPP between two ethnic groups, Oraon tribals and Bengalee Hindus, residing in West Bengal, India. A total of 280 participants included 112 Oraons and168 Bengalee Hindus of both. Prints were taken using dark shaded lipstick and transparent cellophane tape and recorded into white A4 sheet. Prints were divided into four quadrants and examined by magnifying glass. For analysis of results, classification of Suzuki and Tsuchihashi was followed. A p value of 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. It was observed that Type II pattern was dominant in first and second quadrants in both ethnic groups, irrespective of sex. Combination of Type II+III was found to be the most common pattern in males among both Oraons (16.2%) and Bengalee Hindus (12.2%) whereas in females Type II pattern (25.0%) among Oraons and Type III pattern among Bengalee Hindus (11.4%) was the most common. Chi square test showed statistically significant difference among females (p<0.05) and in third and fourth quadrants among males (p<0.01) of both ethnic groups. Our investigation clearly demonstrated sex and ethnic variations in LPP. Further studies are required to investigate ethnic variation in LPP among the various populations groups, both tribal as well as non-tribal, from different regions of India.
Neck circumference (NC) is an anthropometric measurement of differentiating body fat distributions and a marker of upper subcutaneous adiposity. The present study highlights the association and importance of NC as a suitable proxy screening measure of overweight/obesity as compared to the conventional anthropometric variables used among Indian adults. The present community based cross-sectional study was undertaken among 1169 Karbi adults (males: 625; females: 544) residing in Karbi Anglong district of Assam, Northeast India, who were selected through a multistage stratified random sampling method. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and NC were recorded using standard procedures. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated and prevalence of overweight/obesity was assessed using standard cut-offs. The prevalence of obesity using BMI (≥25.00 kg m-2) was 15.52% and 15.26% among males and females, respectively (p≥0.05).The prevalence of obesity using NC was observed to be significantly higher among males (48.80%) than females (19.12%) (p<0.01). The binary logistic regression analysis showed that NC predicted obesity over the conventional anthropometric variables with reasonable accuracy (p<0.01). The ROC-AUC analysis showed a relatively greater significant association between BMI, WC and HC and NC for obesity (p<0.01). Thus, NC appears to be a potentially simple, easyto- use screening measure for predicting obesity among adults. Further studies are required to validate its use for screening of obesity among other ethnic populations in India.