Lubomir Makedonski, Katya Peycheva and Mona Stancheva
Major part of healthy human diet consist of marine fish and seafood products. And it is not surprising that there are numerous studies based on metal accumulation in various fish species. Fish may also be used for heavy metal monitoring programs of marine environments due to their easy sampling, sample preparation and chemical analysis. Concentrations of lead, cadmium, nickel, copper, manganese, zinc, iron, chromium, total mercury and total arsenic were determined in edible part of two commercially valuable fish Greek aquaculture species European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) purchased from Bulgarian market during 2011. The concentration of metals was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The concentration of the heavy metals in examined fish species ranged as follow: Pb 0.008 - 0.013; Cd 0.0017 - 0.022; Ni 0.007 - 0.012; Cu 0.054 - 0.115; Mn 0.043 - 0.09; Zn 0.14 - 0.15; Fe 0.17 - 0.19; Cr 0.05 - 0.07; Hg 0.11 - 0.13; As 1.6 - 1.8 mg kg-1 wet weight, respectively.
The concentration of the heavy metals obtained from this study is compared with the results of a Black Sea bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) caught during the same year. The concentration of metals was significantly affected by the sampling site and fish species. Difference in the heavy metal concentration between European sea bass, gilthead sea bream is observed for Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe. Although, the heavy metals in the edible parts of the investigated fish were in the permissible safety levels for human uses.
Katya Peycheva, Lubomir Makedonski, Albena Merdzhanova and Mona Stancheva
River ecosystems are vulnerable to heavy metal pollution. Fish samples are considered as one of the most indicative factors, in fresh water systems, for the estimation of trace metals pollution potential since they are the final chain of aquatic web. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the concentration of some toxic elements (As, Hg, Pb, Cd and Ni) in edible part of three wild fresh water fish species (zander (Sander lucioperca), wels catfish (Silurus glanis) and European carp (Cyprinus Carpio)) caught from Bulgarian part of Danube river collected during 2010. The Danube River is the European Union's longest and the continent's second longest river that passes through or touches the borders of ten countries. It has a great importance in regard to biodiversity, economics and transportation. The elements (As, Pb, Cd and Ni) were assayed using Perkin Elmer Zeeman 3030 electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometer with an HGA-600 atomizer. Determination of Hg was performed using Milestone Direct Mercury Analyzer DMA-80. The results were expressed as μg/g dry weight. The order of heavy metal accumulation in the edible part of zander is As>Hg>Pb> Ni> Cd while the other two fish species show a different metal accumulation Hg > As >Pb> Ni > Cd. In all heavy metals, the accumulation of mercuric and arsenic proportion was significantly high in all three fish types.
Albena Merdzhanova, Veselina Panayotova, Diana A. Dobreva, Rostitsa Stancheva and Katya Peycheva
Rapana venosa is an edible mollusc with nutritional and economic importance. There is limited information about its lipid composition. The aim of the present study is to provide information about lipid composition, fatty acid profiles, fat soluble vitamins and cholesterol content of raw and cooked Rapana venosa. Cooking did not affect the ratio of lipid classes, but fatty acids composition varied significantly. Considerable variations were observed in fatty acid distribution of total lipids and neutral lipids. Fatty acid groups of phospholipids remained unaffected by temperature treatment. The most abundant fatty acids in all lipid classes of raw and cooked specimens were palmitic acid (C16:0) and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n-3). The sum of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was higher than omega-6 PUFA in all lipid fractions. The results of the present study showed that cooking process affected cholesterol, fat soluble vitamins and carotenoids content differently. Larger variations were observed for vitamin A, β-carotene and astaxanthin and to lesser for vitamin E. Cholesterol and vitamin D3 were also affected by the thermal stress. The present study revealed that Rapana venosa meat could be a good source of high quality nutritional lipids, which are well preserved even after culinary treatment