Genetic polymorphisms in homologous recombination repair genes in healthy Slovenian population and their influence on DNA damage
Background. Homologous recombination (HR) repair is an important mechanism involved in repairing double-strand breaks in DNA and for maintaining genomic stability. Polymorphisms in genes coding for enzymes involved in this pathway may influence the capacity for DNA repair. The aim of this study was to select tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in specific genes involved in HR repair, to determine their allele frequencies in a healthy Slovenian population and their influence on DNA damage detected with comet assay.
Materials and methods. In total 373 individuals were genotyped for nine tag SNPs in three genes: XRCC3 722C>T, XRCC3 -316A>G, RAD51 -98G>C, RAD51 -61G>T, RAD51 1522T>G, NBS1 553G>C, NBS1 1197A>G, NBS1 37117C>T and NBS1 3474A>C using competitive allele-specific amplification (KASPar assay). Comet assay was performed in a subgroup of 26 individuals to determine the influence of selected SNPs on DNA damage.
Results. We observed that age significantly affected genotype frequencies distribution of XRCC3 -316A>G (P = 0.039) in healthy male blood donors. XRCC3 722C>T (P = 0.005), RAD51 -61G>T (P = 0.023) and NBS1 553G>C (P = 0.008) had a statistically significant influence on DNA damage.
Conclusions.XRCC3 722C>T, RAD51 -61G>T and NBS1 553G>C polymorphisms significantly affect the repair of damaged DNA and may be of clinical importance as they are common in Slovenian population.
Introduction. A combination of pemetrexed and cisplatin has been shown to improve the outcome in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), however, there is a great heterogeneity in treatment response among patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate the influence of polymorphisms in folate pathway and transporter genes on pemetrexed treatment outcome in Slovenian patients with MPM.
Methods. MPM patients treated with pemetrexed in the course of a prospective randomized clinical trial were genotyped for nineteen polymorphisms in five genes of folate pathway and six transporter genes. Logistic regression was used to assess the influence of polymorphisms on treatment efficacy and toxicity, while Cox regression was used to determine their influence on progression-free and overall survival.
Results. Patients with at least one polymorphic MTHFD1 rs2236225 allele had a significantly lower response rate (p = 0.005; odds ratio [OR] = 0.12; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.03−0.54) and shorter progression-free survival (p = 0.032; hazard ratio [HR] = 3.10; 95% CI = 1.10−8.74) than non-carriers. Polymorphisms in transporter genes did not influence survival; however, several were associated with toxicity. Liver toxicity was significantly lower in carriers of polymorphic ABCC2 rs2273697 (p = 0.028; OR = 0.23; 95% CI = 0.06−0.85), SLCO1B1 rs4149056 (p = 0.028; OR = 0.23; 95% CI = 0.06−0.85) and rs11045879 (p = 0.014; OR = 0.18; 95% CI = 0.05−0.71) alleles compared to non-carriers, as well as in patients with SLCO1B1 GCAC haplotype (p = 0.048; OR = 0.17; 95% CI = 0.03−0.98). Gastrointestinal toxicity was much more common in patients with polymorphic ABCC2 rs717620 allele (p = 0.004; OR = 10.67; 95% CI = 2.15−52.85) and ABCC2 CAG haplotype (p = 0.006; OR = 5.67; 95% CI = 1.64−19.66).
Conclusions. MTHFD1 polymorphism affected treatment response and survival, while polymorphisms in ABCC2 and SLCO1B1 transporter genes influenced the risk for toxicity. These polymorphisms could serve as potential markers of pemetrexed treatment outcome in patients with MPM.
Hurthle cells of the thyroid gland are very rich in mitochondria and oxidative enzymes. As a high level oxidative metabolism may lead to higher level of oxidative stress and can be associated with an increased risk for cancer, we investigated whether common functional polymorphisms in antioxidant genes (SOD2, CAT, GPX, GSTP1, GSTM1 and GSTT1) are associated with the development or clinical course of Hurthle cell thyroid carcinoma (HCTC).
A retrospective study was performed in 139 patients treated by thyroid surgery for a Hurthle cell neoplasm. HCTC, Hurthle cell thyroid adenoma (HCTA) or Hurthle cell thyroid nodule (HCTN) were diagnosed by pathomorphology. DNA was extracted from cores of histologically confirmed normal tissue obtained from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens and genotyped for investigated polymorphisms. Logistic regression was used to compare genotype distributions between patient groups.
HCTC, HCTA and HCTN were diagnosed in 53, 47 and 21 patients, respectively. Metastatic disease and recurrence of HCTC were diagnosed in 20 and 16 HCTC patients, respectively. Genotypes and allele frequencies of investigated polymorphisms did not deviate from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in patients with HCTC, HCTA and HCTN. Under the dominant genetic model we observed no differences in the genotype frequency distribution of the investigated polymorphisms when the HCTA and HCTN group was compared to the HCTC group for diagnosis of HCTC or for the presence of metastatic disease. However, GPX1 polymorphism was associated with the occurrence of recurrent disease (p = 0.040).
GPX1 polymorphism may influence the risk for recurrent disease in HCTC.
Background: DNA repair mechanisms are essential for maintaining genome stability, and genetic variability in DNA repair genes may contribute to cancer susceptibility. Our aim was to evaluate the influence of polymorphisms in the homologous recombination repair genes XRCC3, RAD51, and NBN on the risk for osteosarcoma.
Methods: In total, 79 osteosarcoma cases and 373 controls were genotyped for eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in XRCC3, RAD51, and NBN. Logistic regression was used to determine the association of these SNPs with risk for osteosarcoma.
Results: None of the investigated SNPs was associated with risk for osteosarcoma in the whole cohort of patients, however, in patients diagnosed before the age of thirty years XRCC3 rs861539 C>T and NBN rs1805794 G>C were associated with significantly decreased risk for osteosarcoma (P=0.047, OR=0.54, 95% CI=0.30-0.99 and P=0.036, OR=0.42, 95% CI=0.19-0.94, respectively). Moreover, in the carriers of a combination of polymorphic alleles in both SNPs risk for osteosarcoma was decreased even more significantly (Ptrend=0.007). The risk for developing osteosarcoma was the lowest in patients with no wild-type alleles for both SNPs (P=0.039, OR=0.31, 95% CI=0.10-0.94).
Conclusions: Our results suggest that polymorphisms in homologous recombination repair genes might contribute to risk for osteosarcoma in patients diagnosed below the age of thirty years.
Gluconeogenesis and renal glucose excretion in kidneys both play an important role in glucose homeostasis. Sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT2), coded by the SLC5A2 gene is responsible for reabsorption up to 99% of the filtered glucose in proximal tubules. SLC5A2 genetic polymorphisms were suggested to influence glucose homeostasis. We investigated if common SLC5A2 rs9934336 polymorphism influences glycemic control and risk for macro or microvascular complications in Slovenian type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients.
All 181 clinically well characterized T2D patients were genotyped for SLC5A2 rs9934336 G>A polymorphism. Associations with glycemic control and T2D complications were assessed with nonparametric tests and logistic regression.
: SLC5A2 rs9934336 was significantly associated with increased fasting blood glucose levels (P<0.001) and HbA1c levels under the dominant genetic model (P=0.030). After adjustment for T2D duration, significantly higher risk for diabetic retinopathy was present in carriers of at least one polymorphic SLC5A2 rs9934336 A allele compared to non-carriers (OR=7.62; 95%CI=1.65–35.28; P=0.009).
Our pilot study suggests an important role of SLC5A2 polymorphisms in the physiologic process of glucose reabsorption in kidneys in T2D patients. This is also the first report on the association between SLC5A2 polymorphism and diabetic retinopathy.
This study aimed to investigate the association between NLRP3 rs35829419 and CARD8 rs2043211 polymorphisms and the risk of developing pleural plaques, asbestosis, and malignant mesothelioma (MM), and to study the influence of the interactions between polymorphisms and asbestos exposure on the risk of developing these diseases.
The case-control study included 416 subjects with pleural plaques, 160 patients with asbestosis, 154 subjects with MM and 149 subjects with no asbestos disease. The NLRP3 rs35829419 and CARD8 rs2043211 polymorphisms were determined using real-time PCR-based methods. In the statistical analysis, standard descriptive statistics was followed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression modelling.
Asbestos exposure (medium and high vs low) was associated with the risk for each studied asbestos-related disease. An increased risk of pleural plaques was found for CARD8 rs2043211 AT + TT genotypes (OR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.01–2.16, p = 0.042). When the analysis was performed for MM patients as cases, and pleural plaques patients as controls, a decreased MM risk was observed for carriers of CARD8 rs2043211 TT genotype (OR = 0.52, 95% CI 0.27–1.00, p = 0.049). The interactions between NLRP3 rs35829419 and CARD8 rs2043211 genotypes did not influence the risk of any asbestos-related disease. However, when testing interactions with asbestos exposure, a decreased risk of asbestosis was found for NLRP3 CA+AA genotypes (OR = 0.09, 95% CI 0.01–0.60, p = 0.014).
The results of our study suggest that NLRP3 and CARD8 polymorphisms could affect the risk of asbestos-related diseases.
Thyroid cancer is one of the most common secondary cancers after treatment of malignancy in childhood or adolescence. Thyroid gland is very sensitive to the carcinogenic effect of ionizing radiation, especially in children. Imbalance between pro- and anti-oxidant factors may play a role in thyroid carcinogenesis. Our study aimed to assess the relationship between genetic variability of antioxidant defence-related genes and the risk of secondary thyroid cancer after treatment of malignancy in childhood or adolescence.
Patients and methods
In a retrospective study, we compared patients with childhood or adolescence primary malignancy between 1960 and 2006 that developed a secondary thyroid cancer (cases) with patients (controls), with the same primary malignancy but did not develop any secondary cancer. They were matched for age, gender, primary diagnosis and treatment (especially radiotherapy) of primary malignancy. They were all genotyped for SOD2 p.Ala16Val, CAT c.-262C>T, GPX1 p.Pro200Leu, GSTP1 p.Ile105Val, GSTP1 p.Ala114Val and GSTM1 and GSTT1 deletions. The influence of polymorphisms on occurrence of secondary cancer was examined by McNemar test and Cox proportional hazards model.
Between 1960 and 2006 a total of 2641 patients were diagnosed with primary malignancy before the age of 21 years in Slovenia. Among them 155 developed a secondary cancer, 28 of which were secondary thyroid cancers. No significant differences in the genotype frequency distribution were observed between cases and controls. Additionally we observed no significant influence of investigated polymorphisms on time to the development of secondary thyroid cancer.
We observed no association of polymorphisms in antioxidant genes with the risk for secondary thyroid cancer after treatment of malignancy in childhood or adolescence. However, thyroid cancer is one of the most common secondary cancers in patients treated for malignancy in childhood or adolescence and the lifelong follow up of these patients is of utmost importance.
Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a rare disease, linked to asbestos exposure in more than 80% of the cases. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been identified as modulators of the tumour microenvironment and carcinogenesis. Polymorphisms of selected MMPs have been studied as potential biomarkers of time to progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) in MM. The aim of our study was to investigate selected MMP polymorphisms as baseline risk predictors in MM development in combination with other well known risk factors, such as asbestos exposure.
Patients and methods
The study included 236 patients and 161 healthy blood donors as the control group. Ten different polymorphisms in three MMP genes were genotyped using a fluorescence-based competitive allele-specific assay (KASPar): MMP2 rs243865, rs243849 and rs7201, MMP9 rs17576, rs17577, rs2250889 and rs20544, and MMP14 rs1042703, rs1042704 and rs743257. In statistical analyses continuous variables were described using median and range (25%–75%), while frequencies were used to describe categorical variables. Deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) was assessed using the standard chi-square test. The additive and dominant genetic models were used in statistical analyses. The association of genetic polymorphism with MM risk were examined by logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
Carriers of at least one polymorphic MMP2 rs243865 allele tended to have a decreased risk for MM (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.44–1.00; P = 0.050). The association was more pronounced in patients with known asbestos exposure: carriers of at least one polymorphic allele had significantly lower MM risk (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.35–0.86; P = 0.009). None of the other tested polymorphisms showed association with the risk of malignant pleural mesothelioma.
The MMP2 rs243865 polymorphism may have a protective role in malignant pleural mesothelioma development. This finding is even more evident in patients exposed to asbestos, implying a strong gene-environment interaction.
Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an asbestos related aggressive tumor with poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to investigate if aquaporin 1 (AQP1) genetic polymorphisms influence the risk of MM and the response to cisplatin based MM treatment.
Patients and methods
The case-control study included 231 patients with MM and a control group of 316 healthy blood donors. All subjects were genotyped for three AQP1polymorphisms (rs1049305, rs1476597 and rs28362731). Logistic and Cox regression were used in statistical analysis.
AQP1 rs1049305 polymorphism was significantly associated with MM risk in dominant model adjusted for gender and age (OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.37–0.96, Padj = 0.033). This polymorphism was also significantly associated with cisplatin based treatment related anaemia (unadjusted: OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.27–0.90, P = 0.021; adjusted: for CRP: OR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.27–0.99, P = 0.046), with leukopenia (OR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.00–4.35, P = 0.049) in dominant model and with thrombocytopenia (OR = 3.06, 95% CI = 1.01–9.28, P = 0.048) and alopecia (OR = 2.92, 95% CI = 1.00–8.46, P = 0.049) in additive model. AQP1 rs28362731 was significantly associated with thrombocytopenia (unadjusted: OR = 3.73, 95% CI = 1.00–13.84, P = 0.049; adjusted for pain: OR = 4.63, 95% CI = 1.13–19.05, P = 0.034) in additive model.
AQP1 may play a role in the risk of MM. Furthermore, AQP1 genotype information could improve the prediction of MM patients at increased risk for cisplatin toxicity.
Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a rare aggressive tumour of mesothelium caused by asbestos exposure. It has been suggested that the genetic variability of proteins involved in DNA repair mechanisms affects the risk of MM. This study investigated the influence of functional polymorphisms in ERCC1 and XRCC1 genes, the interactions between these polymorphisms as well as the interactions between these polymorphisms and asbestos exposure on MM risk.
Patients and methods
In total, 237 cases with MM and 193 controls with no asbestos-related disease were genotyped for ERCC1 and XRCC1 polymorphisms.
ERCC1 rs3212986 polymorphism was significantly associated with a decreased risk of MM (odds ratio [OR] = 0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.41–0.91; p = 0.014). No associations were observed between other genetic polymorphisms and MM risk. Interactions between polymorphisms did not significantly influence MM risk. Interaction between ERCC1 rs11615 and asbestos exposure significantly influenced MM risk (OR = 3.61; 95% CI = 1.12–11.66; p = 0.032). Carriers of polymorphic ERCC1 rs11615 allele who were exposed to low level of asbestos had a decreased risk of MM (OR = 0.40; 95% CI = 0.19–0.84; p = 0.016). Interactions between other polymorphisms and asbestos exposure did not significantly influence MM risk.
Our findings suggest that the genetic variability of DNA repair mechanisms could contribute to the risk of developing MM.