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  • Author: Katerina Todorova x
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Danica Labudovik, Katerina Tosheska, Sonja Alabakovska, Jasna Bogdanska and Bojana Todorova

Apoprotein(A) Isoforms and Plasma LP(A) Concentration in Members of Four Families

Apoprotein(a) is a multikringle protein which shows a genetically inherited size polymorphism. The APO(a) gene is located at the telomeric region of chromosome 6q2.6-q 2.7. Apo(a) size polymorphism is a major determinant of Lp(a) levels. The aim of this study is to describe the influence of apo(a) size polymorphism on the plasma Lp(a) levels in the members of four families. K3EDTA plasma was obtained from every subject after over-night fast. Apo(a) isoforms were determined by 3-15% SDS-PAGE followed by Western immunoblot technique. Plasma Lp(a) level was de - termined with immunonephelometric method. Every child inherited one isoform from its mother and the other from its father. The children from the first family had Lp(a) levels similar to those measured in their parents. The daughters from the second and fourth family inherited the dominant S3 apo(a) isoform from their mothers and also mother's high Lp(a) levels (0.365 g/L - daughter from the second, and 0.465 g/L and 0.446 g/L - daughter from the fourth family respectively). The elder daughter from the third family, carrier of double banded S4S1 apo(a) isoform, had the highest Lp(a) level among the children from all four families. We found out a generation decrease of the Lp(a) level in two families. On the basis of our findings we concluded that the inheritance of the apo(a) isoforms in the members of all four families is in accordance with the simple Mendelian's model and that the apo(a) size polymorphism influences the Lp(a) level in the blood of the examined subjects.

Open access

Mariana Panayotova-Pencheva, Katerina Todorova and Vassilena Dakova

Abstract

Introduction: Pathomorphological changes in the lungs, stomach, and small intestines of wild boars infected with Metastrongylus spp., Ascarops strongylina, and Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus were investigated. Material and Methods: Dissection of 11 wild boars was performed, and parasitised organs were histologically investigated by common techniques. Results: Macroscopic lesions in the lungs infected with Metastrongyus spp. were seen within the apical parts of the large lobes, irregular in form, pale greyish in colour, and compact in consistency. The main pathohistological findings were: the presence of parasite forms, and lymphocytes and neutrophils in the lumen of bronchi and bronchioles, desquamation of the bronchial and bronchiolar epithelium, emphysema, thickening of alveolar septa, hyperaemia, alveolitis, infiltration of the interstitial tissue with giant cell, monocytes and eosinophils, and peribronchial and disseminated lymphoid hyperplasia. The principal observations accompanying infection with A. strongylina were inflammation and focal mucosal damage in the stomach, the latter clearly demarcated from the surrounding tissues. Severe injuries in the place of attachment of M. hirudinaceus to the wall of the small intestine were seen. Intestinal villi, underlying mucosa, and submucosa were destroyed, and an intense inflammatory reaction was present. Conclusion: The histopathological lesions showed wide diversity, varying from mild to severe; but none of them were lethal.

Open access

Petar Dimitrov, Konstantin Simeonov, Katerina Todorova, Zina Ivanova, Reneta Toshkova, Evelina Shikova and Russy Russev

Abstract

Rabbits and rats were inoculated with material derived from FLK cells producing permanently bovine leukaemia virus (BLV). The viral presence in the inoculum was proved by transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, immunogold labelling demonstrating viral Tax protein, and PCR analysis. About 30 % of the infected animals sustained BLV seropositivity during the experiment, and demonstrated symptoms of lympholeukaemia - clinical manifestation of an immunosuppressive condition, increased number of lymphocytes and lymphoblasts, and preneoplastic lymphoid cell accumulations in the liver, lungs, kidneys, and lymph nodes. BLV DNA, detected by PCR in diseased animals, indicates the role of BLV as an aetiological factor of lympholeukaemia, developed in these animals after BLV infection. The alterations in rats were more pronounced than those in rabbits. The results prove that these two species of laboratory animals, especially rats, are suitable models for the in vivo studies of leukaemogenesis caused by BLV/HTLV infections.

Open access

Alina Sultanova, Maksims Èistjakovs, Egils Cunskis, Katerina Todorova, Russy Russev and Modra Murovska

Abstract

Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) is a ubiquitous betaherpesvirus with immunomodulating properties that have been suggested to play an important role in the development of several autoimmune disorders. Although the primary targets for HHV-6 replication, both in vitro and in vivo, are CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, some studies have reported the presence of HHV-6 sequences in different solid organs, including in the thyroid gland, showing possible involvement of this herpesvirus in development of autoimmune thyroid disease. The aim of this study was to determine loads of HHV-6 in thyroid gland tissue in comparison to those in peripheral blood of patients with autoimmune thyroiditis. Seven patients [women mean age 45 (28-65)] with histologically confirmed autoimmune thyroiditis were enrolled in this study. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting was used to distinguish and sort lymphocyte populations from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients. HHV-6 load was determined by real-time PCR for peripheral blood and thyroid gland tissue samples. Additionally, all results from molecular analyses were compared with histological results obtained by light microscopy. Viral load was detected only in one (46 viral copies/ 1×106cells) blood sample; others were under the detection limit of the used kit. However, in all HHV-6 positive tissue samples viral load was detected in the range of 132-1620 viral copies/106 cells. Substantial HHV-6 load in lymphocyte subpopulations was detected in two of seven patients. HHV-6 load was detected in NK and CD95+ cells of two patients. The obtained results show that thyroid gland cells (tyrocytes) act as target cells for HHV-6.