Katarzyna Wątor, Ewa Kmiecik, Adam Postawa and Piotr Rusiniak
Knowledge of uncertainty in analytical results is of prime importance in assessments of compliance with requirements set out for the quality of water intended for human consumption. Assessments of drinking water quality can be performed using either a deterministic or a probabilistic method. In the former approach, every single result is referred directly to the parametric value, while in the probabilistic method uncertainty related to analytical results is taken into account during the decision-making process. In the present research, laboratory uncertainty and uncertainty determined on the basis of results of analyses of duplicate samples collected in two Polish cities were compared and used in the probabilistic approach of water quality assessment. Using the probabilistic method, more results were considered to be “above the parametric value”. Most excesses were observed when the maximum allowable uncertainty as set out in the Regulation of the Minister of Health of 7 December 2017 was used, which is due to the highest values of these uncertainties. The lowest values above parametric values in the probabilistic approach were observed when measurement uncertainty was considered.
Ewa Kmiecik, Katarzyna Wątor, Barbara Tomaszewska, Klaudia Sekuła and Anna Mika
A proper methodology for collecting samples of geothermal water makes it possible not only to determine the hydrochemical characteristics of the water, but also to assess its temporal and spatial variability. The knowledge about the concentration of selected elements as well as the values of field measurements can help to indicate their impact on other environments and the processes that occur in a geothermal system. An important issue is the quality of the results obtained from in-situ measurements of unstable parameters, i.a. pH and electrical conductivity (EC). The results of measurements presented in the paper were completed with the use of three different devices in hot and cooled raw geothermal water (field test). The research was performed during two seasons of increased (winter) and lower (summer) exploitation of geothermal water. The percentage difference between EC at temperatures of 22°C and 75°C was 3.27%; however, for the pH the observed percentage difference was only 0.26%. An additional experiment was carried out on a laboratory scale to indicate the influence of temperature changes on pH and EC measurements.
Damian Pietrzak, Jarosław Kania, Ewa Kmiecik and Katarzyna Wątor
Knowledge of transport patterns of chemicals in groundwater is essential for environmental assessment of their potential impact. In the present study, the mobility of a chloride tracer injected into three different soils was investigated, using column experiments. The column tests were performed under steady-state conditions to determine parameters of chloride migration through soils. Based on breakthrough curves, pore-water velocity, dispersion coefficient and dispersivity constant were calculated for each soil sample using CXTFIT/STANMOD software. Pore-water velocity was in the range of 0.31 cm/min for fine sand, to 0.35 cm/min for silty sand and to 0.40 cm/min for vari-grained sand. The highest values of dispersion coefficient and dispersivity constant were observed for silty sand (0.55 cm2/min and 1.55 cm, respectively), while the lowest value was found for fine sand (0.059 cm2/min and 0.19 cm, respectively). Column experiments for chlorides (conservative tracer) are a preliminary stage for further research which will be undertaken to investigate migration parameters of selected neonicotinoids (reactive tracers) through different soils.