The human height-to-weight ratio is an important parameter of the body homeostasis. Currently, the most popular measurement determining the relationship between body mass and height is the Quetelet II indicator, called Body Mass Index (BMI). The aim of this study is an evaluation of the differences in the height-to-weight ratios, depending on selected environmental, psychological and sociological factors in people studying at higher education institutions in Łódź. The research was conducted among students of higher education institutions in Łódź, by electronic means or with the use of an anonymous survey. It consisted of 28 closed single or multiple choice questions. Statistical analysis was made of complete results of the research involving 135 people, both males and females, aged between 19-26. It was revealed that the factors related to higher BMI values in students are the following: the presence of a tendency in the students to gain weight themselves, and a tendency to gain weight present in their mothers, an evaluation of their own body mass as excessive, regularly smoking cigarettes and rarely undergoing medical check-ups. Among the factors connected with lower BMI values are: regular coffee consumption, perception of their own body mass as being too low, and also obtaining systolic pressure values below 110 mm Hg. Additionally, a positive correlation between taking up physical activity and higher values of systolic blood pressure (p<0.05) was shown. Among the subjects, it was found that 92% of the underweight women declared that their body mass and figure were normal. In the case of women with optimal BMI values, 40% stated that their body mass was excessive. In the case of men the problem was reverse: 50% of the subjects who were either overweight or obese claimed that their body mass was within the norm. The factors that significantly influence body proportion differences among students include the subject’s and the subject’s mother’s tendency to put on weight, self-evaluation of their own body mass, the values of systolic blood pressure, coffee consumption and cigarette smoking, as well as the frequency of medical check-ups.
Forest trees are a great model for physiological and genetic studies of plant resistance to unfavourable environmental conditions, since the same species can successfully acclimate at different latitudes. Modern biology, such as genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, etc., significantly facilitates these studies and accelerates the acquisition of new knowledge. This allows for a more effective implementation of conservation measures and the renewal of forest ecosystems.
This review contains information on the latest scientific achievements in the field of acclimatization and tolerance to abiotic stresses, such as cold and frost, of forest trees. There is no doubt that in the course of evolution forest trees developed a complex and dynamic mechanism for controlling the entry into the winter dormancy stage, which allows woody plants to successfully survive in cold and freezing conditions and is initiated long before the beginning of winter. Studying the function of individual genes in forest tree species, however, remains an incredibly difficult task due to large genomes, specific development as well as the lack of standard techniques and routine procedures. In recent years, similarities between the well-studied genetic response to low temperatures of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and forest trees have been identified, which produced meaningful analogies and allows for issues of functional genetics to be addressed more effectively.
The main goal of this work was to show that findings from forest tree genomics can be effectively used as a tool for the reproduction and protection of important tree species through the identification of the predisposition of specific populations to climate change and their adaptive capacity.