The purpose of the work was to identify the occurrence of butterflies depending on landform uses and human influence on the population domination structure. The research was conducted in the ‘Krzywda’ field-and-forest Site occupying 172 ha. The area consists of the land leaving in fallow, meadows and wasteland including about 68 ha of swamps that are strongly eutrophic due to human economic activity. The area is subjected to artificial succession inhibition processes in the form of mowing and cutting of trees and shrubs. 32 species of butterflies were recorded during the research, that is, 20% of all species within this group occurring in Poland. The research has approved the great spatial and quantitative diversification of the occurring area of butterflies depending on the form of the land uses. The greatest number of species and their greatest populations were found in the land laying in fallow without the removal of the biomass. The least number of species and their specimens were collected in the unmown laying fallow land. Lycaena virgaureae was the most numerous species collected. The correct domination structure characterized by a small number of numerous species and a large number of species consisting of a low number of specimens. Processes observed in the studied Site subjected to various types of land use influence the occurrence diversity of this group of insects.
Ryszard Kapuściński and Katarzyna Szyszko-Podgórska
The goal of this work is to present the valorisation of national park based on the criteria resulting from standard data forms (SDF). The analysis covered a number of areas protected under the Birds Directive and Habitats Directive with the A, B or C category. Habitats and species marked as D in the SDF are not protected in the Nature 2000 areas, which is why they were not taken into account in the analysis. The presented characteristics made it possible to determine the hierarchy of national parks amongst the most valuable natural objects that deserve protection in the first place and also to verify the views on most valuable areas.
Katarzyna Szyszko-Podgórska and Leszek Stankiewicz
The objective of this work was to determine the occurrence of birds depending on the use of the area and the content of organic coal in field-and-forest systems. The research demonstrated a great diversity of bird species and great differences in the content of organic coal in individual areas. According to the conducted analyses, human economic activity can influence the content of organic coal and, therefore, it also influences the occurrence of specific bird species. In connection with the fact that the entire area covered with the research has been modelled by humans, the content of organic coal, the composition of bird species and their functioning in spatial systems are derivatives of such an activity.
Katarzyna Szyszko-Podgórska, Marek Kondras, Izabel Dymitryszyn, Anita Matracka, Mirosław Cimoch and Ewa Żyfka-Zagrodzińska
Macrofauna plays a very important role in the functioning of the natural environment. It plays an important role in the decomposition of organic matter by mixing and crushing organic matter in soil. Invertebrate faeces influence the development of microorganisms and their dead bodies stimulate mineralization in the soil. They also influence the humification processes. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of macrofauna and litter distribution and the accumulation of organic carbon in soil. The study showed a significant influence of this thick animal on the processes taking place in the soil. Significant correlations were observed between the organic carbon content in the litter and the organic carbon content in the soil, macrofauna activity with litter decomposition and its influence on the organic carbon accumulation.
Anna Szczotka-Bochniarz, Katarzyna Podgórska, Agnieszka Nowak and Zygmunt Pejsak
The aim of the study was to implement in vitro cultivation of L. intracellularis strains using ATCC 55783 and vaccine strains, and McCoy cells (ATCC CRL-1696). The infection was monitored by daily observations under phase contrast microscope. Indirect immunostaining using monoclonal antibody was also performed. Large number of S-shaped, moving bacteria were found in the cell medium in cultures infected with ATCC 55783 and vaccine strain. Immunostaining revealed a high number of multiple cell-associated or intracellular red stained bacteria in the infected cultures. This study describes for the first time in vitro cultivation of L. intracellularis in Poland, which creates further perspective for more advanced research on this bacterium.
Ewelina Czyżewska-Dors, Małgorzata Pomorska-Mól, Arkadiusz Dors, Aneta Pluta, Katarzyna Podgórska, Krzysztof Kwit, Ewelina Stasiak and Anna Łukomska
The study evaluated the patterns of local innate immune response in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cells of pigs infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) alone or co-infected with swine influenza virus (SIV).
Material and Methods
The study was performed on 26 seven-week-old pigs in three groups: PRRSV-infected (n = 11), PRRSV and SIV-infected (n = 11), and control (n = 4). BALF was collected post euthanasia at 2 and 4 dpi (three piglets per inoculated group) and at 21 dpi (all remaining pigs). Expression of IFN-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 mRNA was quantified in BALF cells. PRRSV RNA was quantified in BALF samples using a commercial real-time RT-PCR kit.
The three cytokines IFN-α, IFN-γ, and IL-1β presented significant expression changes in all experimental pigs. In PRRSV-infected animals IL-8 also did, but in co-infected subjects IL-6 and IL-10 were the additional upregulated cytokines. The highest number of differentially expressed genes was observed at 4 dpi, and significant differences in cytokine gene expression did not occur between the experimental groups at any other time point. The mean PRRSV load in the BALF of PRRSV-infected pigs was higher than that of co-infected pigs at each time point, having statistical significance only at 4 dpi.
The results of the study indicate that infection with PRRSV alone as well as with SIV interferes with innate and adaptive immune response in the infected host. They also showed that co-infection demonstrates additive effects on IL-6 and IL-10 mRNA expression levels.