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  • Author: Katarzyna Pietruszka x
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Simultaneous determination of multi – component mycotoxin in feeds by liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry


A multiresidue method for determination and quantification of Fusarium mycotoxins: deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, and metabolite of Aspergillus and Penicillium species - ochratoxin A in feeds was described. The method was based on the simultaneous extraction of selected mycotoxins from matrix, followed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry using a hybrid triple quadrupole - linear ion trap mass spectrometer with the multiple reaction monitoring in both positive- and negative-ion modes. The method was validated in accordance with the Commision Decision 2002/657/EC requirements. The mean recoveries of mycotoxins from spiked feed samples ranged from 74.6% to 113.9%, whereas limit of detection and quantification ranged from 0.72 to 12.4 μg/kg and 1.86 to 31.7 μg/kg, respectively.

Open access
Occurrence of ochratoxin A in animal tissues and feeds in Poland in 2014–2016


Introduction: Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a toxic metabolite mainly produced by Aspergillus spp. and Penicillum spp. fungi. Research on the contamination of cereals, complete feeds, and tissues with this mycotoxin has indicated that it can be a toxicological problem impacting animal health and food safety in temperate climes. OTA contamination mainly besets the global pig industry, necessitating the monitoring of feeds and animal tissues. The aim of the study was to present the results of the official monitoring of OTA in animal tissues and feeds in Poland in 2014–2016 and determine the possible correlation between the presence of OTA in different types of samples.

Material and Methods: The presence of ochratoxin A was determined using accepted procedures based on liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection after immunoaffinity column clean-up. Determination of OTA was afforded in the range of 0.3 μg/kg to 300 μg/kg in complete feeds and from 0.2 μg/kg to 150 μg/kg in the kidneys, liver, and muscles.

Results: Over the three year span, about 23.5% of the animal tissues samples were contaminated by ochratoxin A. In the 2014 survey, 10% of the sample tissues contained 5–10 μg/kg (only one sample above 10 μg/kg), and in 2015 and 2016, 24% of samples showed levels above the limit of quantification 0.2 μg/kg, while none of the samples exceeded the established provisional action level of 5 μg/kg for animal tissues. The animal feed analysis showed that 9% was contaminated with ochratoxin A above the limit of quantification of 0.3μg/kg. In 2% of feed samples the OTA concentration was greater than 50 μg/kg.

Conclusion: The results confirm the appropriacy of OTA contamination monitoring and help to increase food safety.

Open access
Pilot study for the presence of fungal metabolites in sheep milk from first spring milking



A mini-study of 20 raw milk samples was conducted to examine the spectrum of fungal metabolites in sheep milk from the first spring milking.

Material and Methods

Samples were collected from randomly selected ewes in two animal flocks from the Bieszczady Mountains and analysed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.


Out of ~700 bacterial, fungal, and plant metabolites tested for, only one mycotoxin – Enniatin B – was detected in sheep milk samples (18/20; 0.0055–0.0121 μg/kg; 0.0078 μg/kg average).


The results indicated that there was no high-level exposure to fungal metabolites via consumption of raw sheep milk during the sample collection period.

Open access
Official control of ochratoxin A in food of animal origin in Poland between 2003 and 2012


Between 2003 and 2012, 1413 samples of kidneys, liver, and muscles from swine, cattle, sheep, horses, chickens, turkeys, geese, ducks, and fish were examined for the presence of ochratoxin A. The examination was performed in the framework of “The National Residue Control Programme for Chemical, Biological, and Drug Residue in Animal Tissues and in the Food of Animal Origin”. The mycotoxin was determined by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection after immunoaffinity column clean up. The limit of quantification was 0.2 μg/kg. Ochratoxin A was found only in swine kidney samples (n = 1092). It was detected in 28.8% of the kidney samples at the concentrations from 0.2 to 29.2 μg/kg. The most of the samples (25.5%) contained OTA at the concentration ranging from 0.2 to 5 μg/kg, which is below the provisional action level for OTA in kidneys, established in Poland at the concentration of 5 μg/kg. Furthermore, 24 (2.2 ) samples had mycotoxin concentrations between 5 and 10 μg/kg and 13 (1.2 ) samples above 10 μg/kg.

Open access