The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the perinatal period on redox status indicators in the blood of ewes before and after lambing and during lactation. The study was performed on 12 ewes of the synthetic SCP line. Blood for testing of redox parameters was collected seven times: before pregnancy, 1.5 months and 24 h before lambing, 2 and 24 h after lambing, and in the fourth and eighth weeks of lactation. The following blood indices were determined by spectrophotometry: lipid peroxides, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, catalase, plasma total antioxidant capacity, uric acid, urea, bilirubin, and creatinine. The tests showed that during the perinatal period reactions are generated which lead to oxidative stress. Oxidative stress in pregnant ewes was found to increase during the period before lambing and may persist even up to weeks 4-8 of lactation.
The experiment was conducted on lambs of the Polish Lowland sheep (PLS) and a synthetic BCP line. The redox potential was assessed in blood of lambs with different genotype and sex, which were fed feed mixtures with various contents of a proteinxanthophyll (PX) concentrate from alfalfa (1.5% and 3%). The 1.5% addition of PX concentrate to feed stimulated the response of the antioxidant defence mechanisms of the lambs to a greater extent than the 3% addition. The study showed that sex of the lambs had no significant effect on changes in the redox parameters of blood. The PLS genotype of lambs determined higher values of superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant potential of plasma (FRAP), malondialdehyde, and vitamin C than the BCP genotype. Along with the growth of the lambs, a descending tendency was observed in SOD and catalase levels, and an ascending tendency in FRAP value.
The aim of the study was to assess the biocompatibility of gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) for chickens by investigating their effect on their growth, hematological parameters, markers of oxidative stress, and indicators of liver and kidney function. The experiment was carried out on 54 chickens assigned to 3 experimental groups of 18 birds each. The control group did not receive gold nanoparticles. The birds in group Au-NPs2.0 received gold nanoparticles in a tube into a crop at a rate of 2.0 mg/kg body weight/day, while the birds in AuNPs5.0 group at a rate of 5.0 mg/kg body weight/day. The blood for analysis was collected after 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of Au-NPs application. The obtained results indicate that short-term (7–14 day) exposure to lower dose (2.0 mg/kg b.w./day) of AuNPs had no toxic impact on chickens, but the extension of the duration time caused toxicological effects evidenced by growth inhibition as well as induction of oxidative stress and liver injury. The higher dose of AuNPs (5.0 mg/kg b.w./day) exerted toxic effects already after 7–14 days of supplementation.
It was postulated that naturally occurring phenolic compounds obtained from various plant species may have potential use as feed additives for poultry. Therefore the aim of the study was to compare extracts of hesperidin, diosmin, quercetin and resveratrol in terms of their health-promoting (particularly immunostimulatory) effect on turkeys at different ages. The experiment was conducted on 720 Big 6 turkey hens assigned to 6 experimental groups of 120 individuals (6 repetitions with 20 birds each). The turkey hens in group G-C were the control, receiving a basal compound feed with no experimental additives. The turkey hens in the remaining groups, from the first to the 16th week of life, received a basal diet containing hesperidin (group G-H), diosmin (group G-D), quercetin (group G-Q) or resveratrol (group G-R) in the amount of 200 g per tonne of feed. Ht, Hb, RBC, WBC, lysozyme activity, %PC, IgA, IL-6, GLU, TP and minerals were determined in blood samples. The addition of quercetin or resveratrol in the amount of 200 g per tonne of feed was found to have a beneficial effect on haemoglobin synthesis and phosphorus availability, and may also modulate immunity in turkey hens.
The aim of the study was to select a dosage and time of administration of a probiotic preparation containing live cultures of Bacillus subtilis and enriched with choline to obtain the most beneficial effect on the antioxidant and biochemical status of the blood of chickens and to improve their growth performance. A total of 980 one-day-old Ross 308 chickens (7 replications of 20 individuals each) reared until their 42nd day of life were used in the experiment. The chickens were divided into seven groups of 140 each. The control group did not receive any additives. The T1 groups received a probiotic in the amount of 0.05 g/L (T1-0.05), 0.1 g/l (T1-0.1) or 0.25 g/l (T1-0.25) throughout the rearing period, while the T2 groups received the same doses of the probiotic, but only during days 1–7, 15–21 and 29–35 of rearing. Administration of a preparation containing Bacillus subtilis bacteria was shown to increase the level of ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), vitamin C, and uric acid (UA), while reducing the level of peroxides (LOOH), malondialdehyde (MDA), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), the share of low-density fractions of cholesterol (LDL), and activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), asparagine aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and creatinine kinase (CK). An increase in the high-density fractions of cholesterol (HDL) and a decrease in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were noted as well. The results of the study indicate that 0.25 g/l of the probiotic, administered continuously (T1), clearly has the most beneficial effect in terms of enhancing antioxidant potential and reducing the level of stress indicators, without disturbing overall metabolism in the body. During the 42 days of rearing each chicken received 33.3 CFUx1011Bacillus subtilis from the probiotic preparation. The body weight gain of chickens from T1-0.1, T1-0.2 and T2-0.25 groups was higher (P≤0.027) and more favourable compared to G–C group.
It was postulated that administration of a probiotic to chickens can stimulate their antioxidant status while at the same time inhibiting oxidation processes. The objective of the study was to determine whether and how different levels and durations of application of a probiotic preparation containing live cultures of Enterococcus faecium and enriched with cholecalciferol and ascorbic acid influences indicators of lipid status and the redox reaction in the blood of broiler chickens. Four hundred day-old Ross 308 chickens were raised until their 42nd day of age. The animals were assigned to five experimental groups of 80 broilers each: a control group that did not receive the probiotic, T1 groups, which received the probiotic at 0.25 (E-0.25) or 0.1 g/l (E-0.1) throughout the rearing period, and T2 groups, which received the probiotic at the same levels, but during days 1–7, 15–21 and 29–35 of life. The probiotic preparation reduced the level of peroxides (LOH), malondialdehyde (MDA), cholesterol (TC), low density (LDL) cholesterol, and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and the activity of catalase (CAT), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), acid phosphatase (AC), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBDH), while ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and glutathione (GSH + GSSG) levels were increased in the blood plasma of the chickens. The results obtained indicate that administration of this probiotic to chickens, especially in the amount of 0.25 g/l for the entire rearing period, stimulates synthesis of low-molecular-weight antioxidants responsible for maintaining redox homeostasis, without exerting a negative effect on liver metabolism in chickens.
The aim of the study was to test whether the use of probiotic bacteria Bacillus subtilis or Enterococcus faecium or a phytobiotic containing cinnamon oil can improve the metabolic parameters, immune status, gut microbiota and histology, and growth performance of broiler chickens. The experiment was carried out on 560 one-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chickens raised until the age of 42 days. The broiler chickens were assigned to 4 experimental groups of 140 birds each (7 replications of 20 individuals each). The control group (Control) did not receive additives. A probiotic preparation containing live bacterial cultures of Enterococcus faecium (EF, in the amount of 0.25 g/l) or Bacillus subtilis (BS, 0.25 g/l) or a phytobiotic preparation containing cinnamon oil (OC, 0.25 ml/l) was administered to the broiler chickens with their drinking water throughout the rearing period. The most important results indicate that the use of BS and OC resulted in: a significant (P≤0.05) increase in the level of ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), high-density cholesterol (HDL) and glutathione (GSH + GSSH) and a significant (P≤0.05) decrease in the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerols (TAG), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), a ratio of heterophils : leukocytes (H:L) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), acidic phosphatase (AC) and creatinine kinase (CK), relative to the C group. In the blood of broiler chickens from the OC treatment, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase activity and 3-hydroxy-butyrate dehydrogenase (HBDH) significantly (P≤0.05) decreased in relation to the C group, and in broiler chickens from EF and BS treatments there was an increase (P≤0.05) in haemoglobin (Hb) content. Compared with group C, in the broiler chickens’ nutritional content from EF, BS and OC treatments, the total number of coliforms and number of fungi significantly (P≤0.05) dropped and the number of aerobic bacteria increased (P≤0.05) in the length of the villus and the depth of the crypt. It has been found that Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecium and phytobiotic containing cinnamon oil can improve the microbiological and histological appearance of broiler chicken intestine. The addition of probiotic bacteria Bacillus subtilis or phytobiotic containing cinnamon oil to drinking water is more preferable than Enterococcus faecium regarding stimulation of the immune system, blood redox status parameters, parameters of metabolic changes and the gut microbiome and morphometry.
The undertaken study aimed at analysing the effect of linseed oil used in diets for turkey hens on contents of pro- and antioxidants in their tissues. Additionally, correlations were analysed between the contents of these compounds in blood, liver, and muscles of the birds. The experiment was conducted on 240 one-week-old turkey hens reared until 16 weeks of age, randomly allocated into two feeding groups. Hens from the first group received soybean oil in their complete feed mixture, whereas linseed oil was the source of fat for turkey hens from the second group. The oil content of the diet was on the level appropriate for the period of feeding: Starter - 0.5%; Grower I - 1.0%, Grower II - 2.5%; Finisher I - 3%. The redox parameters were assayed in breast and thigh muscles, blood, and liver. Introduction of PUFA n-3 high linseed oil to a feed mixture contributed to the enhancement of lipid peroxidation processes, which was indicated by a significant increase in concentrations of H2O2 and malondialdehyde in muscles, and by an increase of superoxide dismutase activity and concentrations of vitamin C and minerals (Cu+2, Zn+2, Fe+2, Se+2). This points out the need of strengthening the antioxidative defence by the use of suitable antioxidants. The use of linseed oil as a feed material for turkey hens additionally contributed to changes in parameters determining the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP). The increased FRAP values resulted from a significant increase in vitamin E level.
In this study, the effect of the halved dosage of RRR-d-α-tocopherol (with respect to dl-α-to-copherol acetate) in diets containing oil rich in linoleic or α-linolenic acid (soybean or linseed oil, respectively) on the quality characteristics and fatty acid (FA) profile of turkey meat was studied. The experiment was conducted using 480 one-week-old turkey hens Big 6 line reared until the 16th week of life. The hens in Groups I and II received soybean oil added to their feed mixture, in Groups III and IV linseed oil was the source of supplementary fat. Turkeys in Groups I and III received dl-α-tocopherol acetate, whereas those in Groups II and IV RRR-d-α-tocopherol. No influence of dietary manipulation was observed on the chemical composition of turkey meat. The combined effect of the type of dietary fat and vitamin E source added to the feed was assessed using the color parameters. The addition of natural vitamin E to the feed mixture with linseed oil significantly increased the proportion of PUFA in breast muscle lipids compared with the group receiving soybean oil with this form of vitamin E. The inclusion of linseed oil increased the content of α-linolenic acid and total n-3 FA concentration in both muscles, compared with the diet that contained soybean oil. This modification of FA composition led to lower n-6/n-3 ratio in both the breast and thigh muscles regardless of the dietary vitamin E source. The use of natural form of tocopherol in diets containing linseed oil may help to improve the nutritional quality of turkey meat, especially by enhancing n-3 PUFA levels with no detrimental effect of lipid addition on the chemical composition and quality of meat.
The aim of the study was to determine whether replacing soybean meal with 3% or 6% fermented soybean meal would positively affect blood metabolites and redox status of broiler chickens. The experiment was carried out on 600 broiler chickens assigned to three experimental groups of 200 chickens each (10 replications of 20 individuals each). In the control group, soybean meal (SBM) was the main source of dietary protein, whereas the remaining groups were fed diets in which soybean meal was partially replaced with 3% or 6% fermented soybean meal (FSBM-3%, FSBM-6%). The fermentation of the SBM contributed to an increase of Lactobacillus, content of crude protein, methionine and lysine, and especially over a 30-fold increase in the concentration of lactic acid. The inclusion of 3% or 6% share of FSBM in the diet of chickens contributed to an increase in total antioxidant potential (FRAP) and plasma total glutathione content. In blood of chickens receiving FSBM an increase of total protein and HDL cholesterol content, aspartate aminotransferase activity and a decrease in urea content were noted. In addition to the positive effect on protein and lipid metabolism as well as antioxidant defence, the diet with a 6% share of FSBM improved body weight gain of chickens. In conclusion, it can be suggested that introducing 6% share of FSBM in place of FSM is more justified.