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  • Author: Katarzyna Krawczyk x
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The objective of the study was to determine the effect of breed (A) and free-range production system (B) on quality of meat from hens of two breeds, Greenleg Partridge (Z-11) and Rhode Island Red (R-11), which are under the biodiversity conservation programme in Poland. Subjects were 120 hens of each breed, which were assigned to two treatment groups differing in the housing system: 60 layers were kept on litter without outdoor access (C) and 60 layers were raised on litter with access to free range (FR). At 56 weeks of age, 8 hens were randomly chosen from each group, slaughtered, and subjected to slaughter analysis. It was found from the study that carcasses from 56-week-old multi-purpose hens are characterized by poor muscle development and considerable fat content. After the first year of egg production, the meat of hens was characterized by low tenderness, high water holding capacity, and a fatty acid profile that was desirable from the viewpoint of human nutrition. In the meat of hens that completed their first year of egg production, the profile of fatty acids was beneficial from the standpoint of human nutrition. The free-range production system reduced carcass fatness, enhanced carcass and meat yellowness, and increased the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (both n-6 and n-3) in breast and leg muscles while causing no significant changes in the content of saturated fatty acids. The meat of the native Z-11 breed was found to contain less saturated and more unsaturated fatty acids compared to the meat of R-11 hens. There was no statistically significant effect of the production system on the sensory evaluation of cooked meat and broth.


Study aim: The human foot is an essential element of the locomotor system. It plays a key role in both the dynamics and the statics of the whole lower limb. The normal structure of the foot determines its mechanical function. During growth and formation of the foot structure, sport activity plays an important role.

The aim of this study was to analyse the structure of the foot in ballet dancers aged 6 to 14 years compared with a clinical reference peer group that did not do ballet.

Material and methods: The study involved 120 girls aged 6 to 14 years (mean age 9.6, sd. 2.4). Sixty of them formed the study group of ballet dancers, and the other 60 formed the reference group. To conduct the measurements, the computer podoscope CQ-ST produced by the CQ Elektronik System, connected to a portable computer, was used.

Results: A few differences were found between the foot structure in young female ballet dancers and their peers. A statistically significant difference was found in the hallux valgus α angle. The left foot of the examined ballet dancers was found to have a larger hallux valgus. A statistically significant correlation was found between the length of time of ballet training and the increase in the α angle values of the left foot and the right foot in the ballet group.

Conclusions: Ballet dancing in childhood may increase the risk of developing hallux valgus, with the tendency of worsening with training time.



Alternating hemiplegia of Childhood (AHC) is a rare disease manifested by transient episodes of hemiplegia and other neurological disorders. Delayed motor development has been reported in patients with AHC, but detailed features of the motor impairment have not been described so far.


The aim of the study was to evaluate gross motor function between attacks in a group of Polish patients with AHC.

Materials and methods

The interictal gross motor function was assessed using the Gross Motor Function AHC scale, which consisted of 41 motor tasks. The study group consisted of 10 patients with AHC older than 2 years of age. The control group consisted of 30 age- and gender-matched subjects. The results achieved in each of the 41 tasks by the study subjects were compared to the results obtained with controls using the non-parametric Mann–Whitney U-test. In tasks 38–41, mean times were compared between the study subjects and controls.


The study revealed gross motor function impairment in patients with AHC. The greatest differences compared to controls concerned such skills as standing on toes, walking on toes, walking on heels, as well as running and hopping on one leg and on alternate legs. Significant impairment of the motor function of the upper limbs was also found.


The study confirmed motor function impairment between attacks in patients with AHC. The study findings may indicate the need to introduce individualised physiotherapy management of patients with AHC.


The rpo genes are characterized by rapidly-evolving sequences. They encode subunits of plastid-encoded (PEP) polymerase (rpoA, rpoB, rpoC1 and rpoC2). This polymerase is one of the most important enzymes in the chloroplasts. The primary aim of the research was to study the rate of molecular evolution in the rpo genes and to estimate these genes as phylogenetic markers based on the example of the genus Erica (Ericaceae). The tested rpo genes demonstrated similarities on multiple levels, for example: phylogenetic informativeness, variation level, intragenic mutation rates and the effect of intragenic mutations on the properties of encoded peptides. This study did not confirm that the analyzed rpo genes are reliable markers and may be helpful in understanding phylogenetic relationships between species that belong to the same genus. The rpoC2 gene was found to be a most useful phylogenetic marker in the Erica genus, while rpoC1 was found to be the least promising gene.


The aim of the study was to determine the effect of caponizing on body weight and physicochemical properties of meat of the capons - hybrids obtained from the crossing of hens of the Yellow-Legged Partridge (Ż-33) breed with meat roosters. The study covered 80 roosters - hybrids, which were randomly assigned to two groups of 40 animals each (8 boxes of 10 pcs in each group). Group I (control) consisted of uncastrated roosters while group II included birds, which were castrated in 8th week of age under local anesthesia by a vet. Birds were fed ad libitum with the same standard diets and kept on litter under optimal environmental conditions with a stocking density of 7 animals/m2. At the end of fattening, i.e. in the 20th week of life, 8 birds with a body weight close to the group average were selected from each group for slaughter. After slaughter, the effectiveness of the procedure was checked (lack of testicles), then the slaughter performance of birds, physicochemical parameters of the pectoral and leg muscles were determined, and sensory evaluation was performed. The procedure of castration of roosters - hybrids had a positive effect on body weight, feed conversion ratio and carcass traits. The pectoral and leg muscles of the capons were characterized by better water absorption, brittleness and sensory evaluation compared to roosters. Among the assessed groups of birds there was also a variation in the coloring of whole carcasses and muscles, which were lighter (L*), more yellow (b*) and less red (a*) in caponized birds. In addition, the castration procedure had a positive effect on the total protein content in both the pectoral and leg muscles, which in turn, with a higher raw fat content, were distinguished by a favorable ratio of n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Based on the results, it can be concluded that the hybrids obtained from the crossbreeding of the Yellow-Legged Partridge (Ż-33) and Ross 308 meat roosters are good choice for capon production. They can complement poultry meat production with a niche product for consumers looking for products of exceptional quality.


The objective of the study was to determine the effect of caponizing Greenleg Partridge cockerels on slaughter parameters and meat quality. In total 80 Greenleg Partridge cockerels were assigned to two groups with 40 birds per group. Group I (control) consisted of uncastrated cockerels and group II contained birds that were castrated at 8 weeks of age. Birds were kept until 24 weeks of age and fed the same diet ad libitum. Body weight was recorded at 1, 8, 16 and 24 weeks of age. Dressing percentage, proportion of breast and leg muscles, giblets and abdominal fat, and microstructure of the pectoralis superficialis muscle were determined postmortem. Physicochemical characteristics of meat (pH, CIE L*a*b* colour, water holding capacity, drip loss, thawing loss, cooking loss, shear force, texture parameters and chemical composition) were determined and sensory evaluation was performed. The castration of Greenleg Partridge cockerels contributed to increases in body weight, dressing percentage, and carcass muscle and fat content, and changed the colour of bird skin and muscles. The leg muscles of capons were characterized by higher pH24h, better water holding capacity, a tendency for higher fat concentration, and better sensory quality. The breast muscles of castrated cockerels lost more water and were tougher than the same muscles from uncastrated cockerels, but received better scores for flavour. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that the caponized Greenleg Partridge cockerels can be used as a valuable material for production of high quality meat.


The aim of the study was to determine the effect of genotype (breed/line) and spaying of pullets on body weight, estradiol level, carcass and meat quality. Subjects were Rhode Island Red (R-11), Yellowleg Partridge (Ż-33) and Sussex hens (S-66), 100 birds per line, which were divided into 2 groups, each having 50 pullets and 50 poulards. Spaying was performed at 10 wk of age, under local anesthesia by a veterinarian. The present study showed that blood estradiol levels in poulards were much lower than in pullets regardless of genotype. Poulards showed higher body weight and their carcasses higher lightness and yellowness. In the sensory evaluation, poulard breast meat was more tasty and leg meat also more juicy and tender compared to pullet meat. Among the three conserved breeds, Rhode Island Red (R-11) and Yellowleg Partridge (Ż-33) hens are the best starting material for poulard production. Their carcasses showed good muscling and intense yellowness desirable to the consumers. R-11 birds achieved highest body weight. Spaying of pullets had no significant effect on the profile of fatty acids, but greater and statistically significant differences in this regard were found between hen lines. Compared to S-66 birds, breast muscles of R-11 and Ż-33 birds contained more polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The breast and leg muscles of these birds had a lower content of saturated fatty acids (SFA ).


Dental anxiety is a very important factor affecting the efficacy of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of dental diseases, both in patients in the developmental age and in young adults. Anxiety is considered an emotional state with negative connotations. The aim of the study was to determine the level of dental anxiety in first year university students, the intent being to help to develop an individual treatment plan in this group of patients. The study involved 280 students including 230 females and 50 males. Of these, 122 patients were from the Medical University of Lublin, 79 from University of Life Sciences and 79 from University of Maria Curie-Skłodowska. The mean age of the study subjects was 21 years and 8 months ± 3,9 months. No differences in the level of dental anxiety between women and men were observed. The highest level of dental anxiety was observed among students of University of Life Sciences, while the lowest level was observed among students of the Medical University


The aim of the study was the comparison of the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of capons and cockerels. The experiment involved 80 Rhode Island Red (R-11) cockerels, which were randomly assigned to two groups with 40 birds per group. Group I (control) consisted of uncastrated cockerels, and group II was comprised of birds subjected to castration at 9 weeks of age. The castration was performed under local anaesthesia by a veterinary surgeon. The birds received the same diets ad libitum and were kept on litter under optimal environmental conditions, at a stocking density of 7 birds/m2. At the end of fattening, 8 birds whose body weights were similar to the group average were selected for slaughter from each group. After slaughter, the birds were checked for castration success (removal of the testes), analysed for dressing percentage and technological parameters of the meat and subjected to chemical and sensory evaluation of the breast and leg muscles. In summary, the castration of Rhode Island Red cockerels (R-11) had a favourable effect on body weight, feed conversion ratio, dressing percentage and carcass muscling. The breast and leg muscles of the capons were characterised by better water holding capacity, tenderness and sensory score compared to the uncastrated cockerels. In addition, the castration had a positive effect on the content of crude protein in both the breast and leg muscles which, with a higher crude fat content, were characterised by a more favourable profile of fatty acids, i.e. lower SFA and higher n-6 and n-3 PUFA content.