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Open access

Katarzyna Fela, Krystyna Wieczorek-Ciurowa, Michał Konopka and Zenon Woźny

Present and prospective leather industry waste disposal

In this paper general characteristics of the main leather industry waste regarding its amount reduction by thermal treatment have been presented. Both the tannery solid wastes and the sludge contain organic substances. Their energy value is more than 50% higher in comparison to hard coal (nominally 20 MJ/kg as dry material). Up to now, the considerable amounts of energy are not recovered; leather wastes are predominantly on landfill. Implementation of a comprehensive thermal method for tannery solid waste and sludge utilization can permit to solve the waste disposal problem by effective neutralization of all of the waste. Moreover, it should bring economic benefits associated with steam or hot water production and landfill tax avoiding. The study is oriented towards the practical application.

Open access

Katarzyna Konopka, Ewa Pisula, Emilia Łojek and Piotr Fudalej

Abstract

The level of metaphor comprehension and interpretation was investigated in a sample of children with cleft palate (CP), aged 6;0-8;11, and healthy controls matched with age, sex, socioeconomic status, and IQ level. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Revised (WISC-R) was used to evaluate the children’s cognitive functioning, and the metaphor tests from a modified version of the Right Hemisphere Language Battery - Polish version (RHLB-PL) were used to assess comprehension of figurative language. The CP and control groups differed significantly in Verbal IQ values and in performance in the Vocabulary test, Comprehension test, Picture Metaphor Explanation test, and Written Metaphor Explanation test. In both metaphor explanation tests, children with CP gave fewer responses than controls. The results suggest no differences between children with CP and controls in understanding figurative language, although they point to weaker performance in communicating responses and producing statements in the CP children group.