The Bieszczady mountains are one of the ranges of the Polish Carpathians. Their natural and cultural amenities attract thousands of Polish and international tourists each year. Despite many protected zones existing in this area (e.g. Bieszczadzki National Park, UNESCO Biosphere Reserve and Nature 2000 areas), the Bieszczady mountains face various environmental and social problems which have arisen from their dynamic but often chaotic tourism development. The lack of a common vision of long-term tourism development (on communal and regional levels) is one of the main challenging issues which public and private bodies are confronted with. The paper presents the results of the implementation of an innovative approach, i.e. the St. Gallen Model for Destination Management (SGDM), in selected Bieszczady communes. This method offers a clear advantage for key destination actors by allowing them to enter a process of holistic destination management. The article is the first attempt at SGDM application in Poland.
Magdalena Babińska, Jerzy Chudek, Elżbieta Chełmecka, Małgorzata Janik, Katarzyna Klimek and Aleksander Owczarek
The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of incorrect assessment of mortality risk factors in a group of patients affected by acute coronary syndrome, due to the lack of hazard proportionality in the Cox regression model. One hundred and fifty consecutive patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and no age limit were enrolled. Univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazard analyses were performed. The proportional hazard assumptions were verified using Schoenfeld residuals, χ2 test and rank correlation coefficient t between residuals and time. In the total group of 150 patients, 33 (22.0%) deaths from any cause were registered in the follow-up time period of 64 months. The non-survivors were significantly older and had increased prevalence of diabetes and erythrocyturia, longer history of coronary artery disease, higher concentrations of serum creatinine, cystatin C, uric acid, glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP), homocysteine and B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and lower concentrations of serum sodium. No significant differences in echocardiography parameters were observed between groups. The following factors were risk of death factors and fulfilled the proportional hazard assumption in the univariable model: smoking, occurrence of diabetes and anaemia, duration of coronary artery disease, and abnormal serum concentrations of uric acid, sodium, homocysteine, cystatin C and NT-proBNP, while in the multivariable model, the risk of death factors were: smoking and elevated concentrations of homocysteine and NT-proBNP. The study has demonstrated that violation of the proportional hazard assumption in the Cox regression model may lead to creating a false model that does not include only time-independent predictive factors.
Katarzyna Górniak, Tadeusz Szydłak, Adam Gaweł, Agnieszka Klimek, Anna Tomczyk, Jerzy Motyka and Krzysztof Bahranowski
This paper summarizes information about recently worked bentonite deposits in Slovakia and presents the results of studies on bentonite from the Central Slovakia Volcanic Field (CSVF). The authors compared the mineralogy of commercial bentonites exploited in the Stara Kremnička (Jelšový potok), Kopernica, and Hliník nad Hronom deposits. X-ray diffraction (XRD), chemical analyses and microscopy showed that the main component is montmorillonite (37-88%), followed by opal C/CT (5-25%), clinoptilolite (up to 15%), feldspars (3-12%), quartz (up to 8%), biotite (2-5%), and kaolinite (up to 2%). The microscopic imaging provided information valuable for the technological assessment of bentonites, particularly the evaluation of mineralogy determined by XRD. The low variability of the mineral composition of commercial bentonites exploited in the western CSVF, together with the significant reserves and localization of deposits close to the Polish-Slovak state border prove that this raw material deserves more attention from Polish industry.