The visual management technique used in process improvement, i.e. value stream mapping (VSM) has been presented in the paper. Value stream mapping is one of the basic management tools in the context of Lean Management or Lean Production. It allows to visualize the flow of decision, information, material and their connections in the full production cycle (from the order, through planning, production, to shipping to the customer). VSM is a lean tool that gives the ability to create flows in the process before implementing changes. In this paper, the possibilities of changes planning based on the current and future status maps have been discussed. On the basis of the current state map (CSM), the areas requiring improvement and operations which efficiency is decisive and for the process have been designated. Particular attention has been paid to the possibilities of using VSM in unit production processes. In the paper has been proposed the two possibilities for company development in terms of the improvement technique in line with the Kaizen philosophy as well as the implementation of process innovations. Which means balanced development through the improvement of the existing process or an acute development strategy through the implementation of process innovations (which involves significant costs).
Management in accordance with the principle of sustainable development is one of the basic aspects of environmental protection, and is nevertheless important in macroeconomic management (eco-innovations in national regulations) as well as in micro-regulations (municipal regulations). The municipalities authorities are obliged to preventing the negative effects of environmental degradation, preventing pollution, providing information on the state of the environment, cover the environmental policy, in order to ensure the land advancement in accordance with the principles of sustainable development. The implemented projects should mainly improve the living conditions of the inhabitants. That is why eco-innovative activities introduced in individual, small territorial areas (municipalities) are becoming more and more important. The paper is based on a case study as a recognized method of analyzing and discussing authentic situations used in management sciences.
Neodymium magnets currently dominate the magnet market due to their superior magnetic properties with maximum volume minimization. In this paper, the results of X-ray analysis for two types of magnetic powder obtained from the recovered magnets traditionally used in electric motors and hard disk have been presented. The NdFeB magnets are composed of 25-35 wt. % rare earth elements (RE) and the rest being transition metals (mainly Fe.). RE, other than Nd, such Dy, Pr, Tb and Gd or exogen elements, other than Fe, such as Al, Co, Ga, Nb, Si, Cu and Zr can also be present as minor admixtures. This paper brings an opportunity to introduce the hard magnets recycling technology on an industrial scale.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial chemical used as an additive in conventional point-of-sale thermal paper receipts, in the production of many polycarbonate plastics, and epoxy resins lignin for food. BPA is xenoestrogen, a foreign compound that is not naturally produced in living organisms, but which acts similarly to natural 17-ß estradiol (natural estrogen). Due to its weak estrogenic activities, BPA exposure may influence multiple endocrine-related pathway, and is associated with prostate and breast cancer, neurobehavioral deficits, heart disease, and obesity. Furthermore, BPA may act as a DNA methylation agent and cause altered gene expression in the brain. Human exposure to bisphenol A is a matter of controversy. This review shows a potential risks in workplace resulting from contact with bisphenol A. The work presents the contribution of BPA exposure levels via dermal contact and the relationship between BPA exposure level and oxidative DNA damage.
The rare earth elements (REE) are vital to innovation technologies and society and are important for the industry, especially for high-tech solutions. In the modern world, anumerous applications have been developed using rare earth elements (REE), implying human exposures and raising unclear questions as to REE-associated health effects. Protecting the environment and public health from disadvantageous actions of rare earth elements mining and processing as emerging pollutants is urgently desired to achieve sustainable development. All activities in mining processes like extraction, separation and after recycling of REE elements could create rick to human health and environment. In the paper the role of management in safety aspects during mining and processing of rare earth elements has been highlighted. In the paper, the potential dangerous and damaging effects on the environment and human health have been identified - the potential risk in the processing as well as the possibilities of preventing the occurrence of hazards have been analyzed.