Piotr Weckwerth, Katarzyna Greń and Ireneusz Sobota
The development and evolution of confined outwash fans in high Arctic regions depend on the rate of meltwater discharge, which is directly related to the glacier ablation rate, in turnassociated with climate conditions. Other factors controlling outwash fan morphology (e.g. depth and width of distributive channels) are processes of fluvial erosion, and the transport and deposition of sediments. These factors have not previously been considered together in relation to the evolution of the confined outwash fans which are commonly incised into the top of permafrost in the forefields of subpolar glaciers and in mountains in high Arctic regions. Morphology and surficial sediments of a confined outwash fan of the Waldemar River (NW Spitsbergen, Svalbard) were analysed on the basis of geomorphological and sedimentological studies. The results of our investigations show multiple relations between the depth and width of distributary channels, fan slope and textural features of glaciofluvial surficial sediments supplied into the fluvial system from the glacier and from lateral fluvial erosion of permafrost
Ireneusz Sobota, Michał Dziembowski, Tomasz Grajewski, Piotr Weckwerth, Marcin Nowak and Katarzyna Greń
This article describes and discusses the results of observations concerning short-term changes in the thermal conditions and the thickness of the active layer in a test field located in the tundra of the Kaffiøyra (NW Spitsbergen) during the summer season of 2015. One of the objectives was to find a correlation between the dynamic of the changes and the local topography. In recent years, thawing of the active layer in the Kaffiøyra region has been considerably varied in individual summer seasons. The test field area was 100 square meters, comprised 36 measurement points and was situated at approximately 3 m a.s.l. in the tundra. The measurements of the thickness and temperature of the active layer were carried out in July, August and early September of 2015. The greatest thickness of the active layer in the tundra was found near the moraine, in the area with the sharpest slope (156 cm to 212 cm). Ground temperatures were observed to follow the prevailing weather conditions with a delay, which amounted to about 24 h at a depth of 25 cm, and as much as 48 h at a depth of 75 cm. A greater thickness of the active layer was found in the western part of the test field, in the vicinity of a tidal channel, and in the eastern part of the field, bordering on the foot of the Aavatsmarkbreen’s moraine. A considerable sloping of the land, combined with increased surface runoff and infiltration at the time of precipitation, makes the water penetrating into the active layer increase its temperature. This demonstrates that the local land forms (tidal channels and terminal moraines) have a substantial influence on the extent and rate of changes which occur in the active layer.