Annual and Daily Changes of Thunderstorms in Temperate Climate in London, Warsaw and Moscow
The aim of the study is to show and compare variation of the annual and daily course of thunderstorms in selected European cities in 2005-2009. Data on thunderstorms originate from dispatches METAR for three airport stations: London Gatwick, Warsaw Okęcie and Moscow Sheremetyevo. These cities represent the various types of climate: warm temperate marine, transitional and continental. Thunderstorms mostly occurred in Warsaw - 207 (Moscow - 174, London - 71). The maximum of thunderstorms frequency, in the yearly course, in all towns occurred in July (Warsaw - 11,8; Moscow - 13,4; London - 5,0). Thunderstorms predominantly started at 13:30 in London, 17:00 in Warsaw, 18:00 in Moscow (13:30 means period 13:01-13:30, 17:00 means period 16:31-17:00 etc.). Thunderstorms most often ended at 13:30 in London, 17:00 in Warsaw, 20:30 in Moscow. There were dominated, at all stations, brief thunderstorms, which lasted for 30 minutes. The longest thunderstorm remained 9 hours (Warsaw), 5,5 (Moscow), 4,5 (London).
In the paper the influence of atmospheric circulation on selected dangerous weather phenomena in Europe in the year 2000 has been presented. Dangerous weather phenomena include: 30 days with thunderstorms in Poland and 26 examples of such phenomena in Europe (tornados, strong winds, thunderstorms, torrential rains, floods, etc.).
The NAO index (North Atlantic Oscillation) served to determine the character of the circulation that influenced the occurrence of catastrophic phenomena in Western, Central and Southern Europe. The J. Lityński classification of circulation types was used to thunderstorms occurring in Poland only. Most catastrophic phenomena during the positive NAO phase (predominance of zonal circulation) happened in Western and Central Europe. During the negative NAO phase (predominance of meridional circulation) the regions of the Mediterranean Basin were more frequently affected. In the case of thunderstorms in Poland in the year under investigation (2000) their occurrence was related to the inflow of air masses from the northern sector.
Storms in the European part of the Mediterranean Sea Basin are characterized in the paper. Data on storm days comes from the years 1986-2008, from fourteen stations located on the coast and on islands of the Mediterranean Sea (Gibraltar, Valencia, Palma de Majorca, Marseille, Ajaccio – Corsica, Cagliari – Sardinia, Palermo – Sicily, Naples, Luqa – Malta, Thessaloniki, Athens, Souda – Crete, Rhodes Airport – Rhodes and Larnaca – Cyprus). The greatest number of storm days was noted in Corsica (870 - on the average 37,8 per year) and the least in Gibraltar (371 – 16,1). In most of the examined stations storms took place most frequently in the fall (from 19 to 46%). The smallest number of storm days was observed in winter (western and central part of the region) and in summer (eastern part). From a year-to-year analysis of storm days, it was found that their trend, at almost at all the stations, is negative. The strongest negative trend was observed in Valencia, Naples and Cagliari (-8,5 days/10 years). A growing trend, reaching 3 storm days/10 years, was only found in Cyprus.
The objective of the paper is to determine the influence of continentality of Europe’s climate, increasing to the east, on the number of days with thunderstorms during the years 1994–2005 in ten chosen European cities.
In Europe, days with thunderstorms come from cities located in zones from the west to the east, beginning from Dublin, through London, Paris, Munich, Prague, Minsk, Kiev, Kharkov and up to Moscow. The well matched stations show the gradually increasing continentality of Europe’s climate.
From an analysis of the number of days with thunderstorms, the Gorczyński continentality index and the long-term mean annual amplitude of air temperature it may be concluded that, in as much as the values of the amplitude and index increase with distance from the ocean, it is not always so with the number of days with thunderstorms. Despite greater climate continentality, Minsk, Kiev and Moscow have much fewer storm days than Warsaw or Prague.
This study is a short analysis of the use of computer microphotography in fiber migration testing as a modern nondestructive
testing method. Microtomography operates similarly to X-ray computed tomography systems used in
medicine, but with much better resolution owing to the use of a smaller radiation spot. The internal structure is
reconstructed as a series of two-dimensional cross-sections that are then used to create 2D and 3D morphological
objects. This process is non-destructive and does not require special preparation of a testing material.
Nonwovens are one of the most versatile textile materials and have become increasingly popular in almost all sectors of the economy due to their low manufacturing costs and unique properties. In the next few years, the world market of nonwovens is predicted to grow by 7%–8% annually (International Nonwovens & Disposables Association [INDA], European Disposables and Nonwovens Association [EDANA], and Markets and Markets). This article aims to analyze the most recent trends in the global export and import of nonwovens, to present two case studies of Polish companies that produce them, and to present one special case study of the market of nonwoven geotextiles in China and India, which are the Asian transition economies among the BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa).
Both loop fancy yarns and frotte fancy yarns belong to the group of yarns with continuous effects. The difference between frotte and loop yarn relies on the fact that the loop yarn is constructed with two core yarns and the frotte yarn is constructed with only one core yarn. The differences are evident in the shape of these two types of fancy yarns. These shape differences are the functions of the tensions of component yarns during the twisting process. The shape and construction of the fancy yarn influence its properties. The properties of loop and frotte fancy yarns, woven and knitted fabrics are compared in this article in order to find out the optimal yarn’s and fabric’s production condition to satisfy the final user and maintain low production costs. In terms of economy aspects only, the frotte fancy yarns are believed to be cheaper in production due to lower quantity of components utilize for their production to compare with loop fancy yarns, under conditions of the same settings of ring twisting frame.
The results of the latest bathymetric survey of 21 lakes in the Suwałki Landscape Park (SLP) are presented here. Measurements of the underwater lake topography were carried out in the years 2012–2013 using the hydroacoustic method (sonar Lawrence 480M). In the case of four lakes (Błędne, Pogorzałek, Purwin, Wodziłki) this was the first time a bathymetric survey had been performed. Field material was used to prepare bathymetric maps, which were then used for calculating the basic size and shape parameters of the lake basins. The results of the studies are shown against the nearly 90 year history of bathymetric surveying of the SLP lakes. In the light of the current measurements, the total area of the SLP lakes is over 634 hm2 and its limnic ratio is 10%. Lake water resources in the park were estimated at 143 037.1 dam3. This value corresponds to a retention index of 2257 mm. In addition, studies have shown that the previous morphometric data are not very accurate. The relative differences in the lake surface areas ranged from –14.1 to 9.1%, and in the case of volume – from –32.2 to 35.3%. The greatest differences in the volume, expressed in absolute values, were found in the largest SLP lakes: Hańcza (1716.1 dam3), Szurpiły (1282.0 dam3), Jaczno (816.4 dam3), Perty (427.1 dam3), Jegłówek (391.2 dam3) and Kojle (286.2 dam3). The smallest disparities were observed with respect to the data obtained by the IRS (Inland Fisheries Institute in Olsztyn). The IMGW (Institute of Meteorology and Water Management) bathymetric measurements were affected by some significant errors, and morphometric parameters determined on their basis are only approximate.
The article presents the results of experimental research on evapotranspiration and transpiration of a common reed bed. The study was conducted in 2014–2015 on Lake Raduńskie Górne (Kashubian Lakeland) in the summer half-year from 1 May to 31 October. In the experiment two sets of standard evaporimeters GGI-3000 were used. One of the evaporimeters was filled with water, while the second additionally contained common reed. During the experiment medium reed bed density was 240 shoots per square metre. The results of the study showed that during the research period the average daily common reed transpiration was 3.9 mm, and the daily maxima reached 12.1–12.5 mm. Average monthly transpiration totals ranged from 42.8 (October) to 208.5 mm (August). During the growing season, the loss of water to transpiration reached 872–971 mm. The average transpiration rate, determined in the conditions of already well developed reed bed (June-September), was 1.83 dm3 m−2 d−1. The values of the ratios Th/EO and ETh/EO, determined during the experiment, were within the ranges reported in most previous research. The average ratio Th/EO was 1.6, and the ratio ETh/EO was 2.0. These values indicate that during the vegetation period common reed transpiration is higher by 60% from open water evaporation, and the total water losses from the common reed bed to evapotranspiration are twice as high as water loss in open water evaporation.