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  • Author: Katarzyna Filip x
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Parafasciolopsis fasciolaemorpha is a liver fluke typically parasitising moose in Central and Eastern Europe. The aim of our studies was to describe a case of fatal moose parafasciolopsosis, with special emphasis on the histopathological changes caused in the liver tissue by around 10,000 flukes.

Material and Methods

A male moose, found dead in Polesie National Park, eastern Poland, was subjected to parasitological necropsy. Macroscopic and histopathological examination of the liver was performed.


Over 10,000 flukes identified as P. fasciolaemorpha were isolated from the liver parenchyma. Histopathological examination of the liver revealed the presence of multiple cavities, which were filled with flukes and cellular detritus and encysted with a layered capsule of connective tissue. Extensive liver fibrosis with signs of incomplete septal cirrhosis was also observed.


Parafasciolopsosis with accompanying diarrhoea was the most probable reason for the moose’s death. However, it is possible that most moose are able to survive extremely intensive P. fasciolaemorpha infection by formation of extensive fibrosis, which isolates flukes from the liver parenchyma and therefore retards the failure of the organ. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first histopathological description of changes in the liver of a moose infected with P. fasciolaemorpha.


Results from numerous pre-clinical studies suggest that a well known anticonvulsant drug valproic acid (VPA) and other short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) cause significant inhibition of cancer cell proliferation by modulating multiple signaling pathways. First of all, they act as histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors (HDIs), being involved in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Afterward, VPA is shown to induce apoptosis and cell differentiation, as well as regulate Notch signaling. Moreover, it up-regulates the expression of certain G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which are involved in various signaling pathways associated with cancer. As a consequence, some pre-clinical and clinical trials were carried out to estimate anticancer effectiveness of VPA, in monotherapy and in new drug combinations, while other SCFAs were tested in pre-clinical studies. The present manuscript summarizes the most important information from the literature about their potent anticancer activities to show some future perspectives related to epigenetic therapy.


A quite simple and rapid TLC-densitometric method for the identification of α-escin (Aescin) in bulk drug substances was developed. In so doing, different chromatographic conditions, including various mobile and stationary phases, were tested. A TLC densitometric determination of the examined compound was performed without using visualizing reagent, yet with the use of appropriate dipping reagents, in order to obtain reliable UV-densitometric measurements of α-escin - a substance which has weak chromophore groups. Herein, the application of a mobile phase containing n-butanolacetic acid-water in volume composition 30:7:13, the use of silica gel 60F254 plates with concentrating zone, and subsequent application of 10% sulphuric acid in ethanol or 5% vanillin in methanol/sulphuric acid, respectively, provided the best results in a TLCdensitometric study of α-escin. The described method was successfully employed to identify α-escin in commercial samples that were in an oral dosage form (tablets) and also in the form of gel containing 20 mg of α-escin.


VR technology is an emerging IT innovation that greatly affects consumer behaviour and consumer perception of products. The aim of this study is to examine how the virtual reality phenomenon can be used as a marketing communication tool and how its usage affects the reception of individual components of a marketing message. The research conducted examined the possible impact of virtual reality on message perception and attitude towards particular offers. Additionally the authors wanted to find out whether there was a relationship between the use of virtual reality and the acceptance of new technologies in marketing communication. To verify the stated hypotheses empirical research was conducted involving an experiment with 150 observations of respondents taking advantage of three different marketing communication tools including: VR presentation with Oculus Rift hardware, video and printed advertisements. The results obtained reveal that VR technology positively and significantly impacts the reception of the offer, the technology involved and the presentation itself.


The aim of paper is to present the diversity of water level fluctuations in degraded Baltic raised bogs. An attempt was made to answer the question how strong the diversity of fluctuations is both within each object and between two objects situated close to each other. Moreover, speed and value of the response of water level to atmospheric precipitation were analysed. The spatial scope of the paper covers two Baltic raised bogs in the lower part of the Łeba river valley: Czarne Bagno and Łebskie Bagno. The time scope covers years 2012-2014. The study found that both analysed bogs were a high dynamic in variation of groundwater level. Annual amplitudes of fluctuations in the water table was in the range of 28.4 to 77.9 cm (Łebskie Bagno) and of 45.6 to 105.0 cm (Czarne Bagno). It has been observed that lowering the water level on both peatlands always been recorded in the summer months, whilst the increase in the autumn, which lasted until spring. Retention and the water level on peatlands influenced primarily precipitation. Extreme meteorological conditions that make it less conspicuous is the variation resulting from factors such as location in different parts of the bog or type of degradation.