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Open access

Katarzyna Dudek and Dariusz Bednarek

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of Mycoplasma bovis infection in clinical cases of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in 2011. There were examined 841 serum samples and 41 nasal swabs and lungs of cattle from different farms of six regions of Poland (13 provinces). The obtained results indicated that the mean prevalence of M. bovis infection in Polish cattle population suffering from BRD was 64.3% and among them 8.4% of the animals were highly positive. On the other hand, in particular regions, it altered - 72.0% in east region, 52.7% in central region, 66.4% in south region, 64.1% in north-west region, 56.5% in north region, and 58.8% in south-west region. It should be added that within the presented regions, the highest values (82.4%) were reported in south region (Malopolskie province), whereas the lowest ones (42.9%) were in east region (Lubelskie province). However, field strains of M. bovis were isolated from the lungs of affected cattle only in the north-west region of Poland (Zachodniopomorskie province).

Open access

Katarzyna Dudek and Dariusz Bednarek

Abstract

Introduction: Mycoplasma bovis is a well-known cause of various disorders in cattle, such as pneumonia, arthritis, mastitis kerato-conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, otitis media, meningitis, and reproductive disorders. There are no commercial vaccines against M. bovis in Europe, therefore, experimental ones are still under investigation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of experimental M. bovis vaccine, containing the Polish field M. bovis strain as well as saponin and lysozyme dimer adjuvants, on the T- and B-cell response in calves.

Material and Methods: The study was carried out on 12 calves divided into two equal groups: experimental and control. The experimental group was subcutaneously injected with the vaccine composed of the field M. bovis strain as well as saponin and lysozyme dimer as adjuvants, whereas the control one received phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The blood samples were collected prior to the study (day 0), then in 24 h intervals up to day 7 and then each 7 days until day 84 post immunisation. The T- and B-cell response as CD2+ (T-cells), CD4+ (T-helper cells), CD8+ (T-cytotoxic cells), and WC4+ (B-cells) markers was analysed using flow cytometry.

Results: In response to the immunisation, the general stimulation of T-cell was observed, the most seen in an increase in CD8+ subpopulation. Similarly, a visible rise in the percentage of WC4+ cells was registered in the vaccinated calves when compared to the control animals.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the novel experimental M. bovis vaccine containing saponin and lysozyme dimer effectively stimulated the cell-mediated immunity in the calves.

Open access

Katarzyna Dudek and Dariusz Bednarek

Abstract

Introduction: Mycoplasma bovis is known as a causative agent of many disorders in cattle. In Europe, there is still a lack of commercial vaccines against M. bovis infection. Acute phase response (APR) is a non-specific host reaction to infection, most seen in changes in production of acute phase proteins. The aim of this study was to analyse APR in calves administered with an experimental M. bovis vaccine.

Material and Methods: Twelve healthy female calves were divided into two equal groups: experimental and control. The experimental vaccine containing the field M. bovis strain and two adjuvants such as saponin and lysozyme dimer was subcutaneously administered to the experimental group. Phosphate buffered saline was taken as the placebo and given to the control group by the same route as the vaccine. Blood samples were collected prior to the study (day 0), then daily up to day 7, and then each seven days until day 84 post vaccination. The concentrations of serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and inteleukin-4 (IL-4) were determined using commercial ELISA kits.

Results: Following the vaccination, a significant increase in SAA, Hp, and IFN-γ concentrations was observed when compared to the unvaccinated calves, whereas the IL-4 concentration was not detectable.

Conclusion: The experimental saponin-based M. bovis vaccine containing lysozyme dimer adjuvant visibly stimulated the APR in the calves, and some specific cytokines (Th1-dependent) directly involved in this response.

Open access

Katarzyna Dudek, Dariusz Bednarek, Ewelina Szacawa and Roger D. Ayling

Abstract

Introduction: Several Mycoplasma species can cause severe diseases in ruminant hosts, some of which are the diseases listed by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The role of the Cervidae family in carrying and transmitting ruminant mycoplasma infections in Poland is unknown. Material and Methods: Antibody and antigen detection tests for the main mycoplasma species that can affect wild ruminants were performed on 237 samples (serum, nasal swab, bronchoalveolar lavage, and lung) collected from 161 animals during 2011-2014. The samples were obtained from a cull of healthy population of deer which included: 96 red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus), 19 fallow deer (Dama dama), and 46 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Results: Serological screening tests revealed positive reactions to Mycoplasma bovis in one sample and to Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae in three samples; however, these three samples were negative by immunoblotting. Other antibody and antigen detection tests demonstrated negative results. Conclusion: Currently wild cervids in Poland do not play a significant role in transmitting mycoplasma infections to domestic animals, but they remain a potential risk.

Open access

Katarzyna Dudek, Dariusz Bednarek, Roger D. Ayling and Ewelina Szacawa

Abstract

The effect of three different field isolates of Mycoplasma bovis on selected immunological parameters in experimentally infected calves was studied. Calves were kept separately in 4 experimental groups, and animals of 3 groups were infected intratracheally with one of the three selected isolates of M. bovis. The control group was inoculated intra-tracheally with sterile physiological saline. Nasal swabs and blood samples were collected just before the calf inoculation, then daily for seven days, and then weekly for another three weeks. The presence of M. bovis antigen, M. bovis antibodies, total protein, gamma globulins, IgA, IgM, IgG, acute phase proteins (haptoglobulin and serum amyloid A), as well as interferon-γ and interleukin-4 concentrations were determined. M. bovis was detected intermittently during the study in the infected groups from day 1, whilst the control group remained free of the pathogen. M. bovis antibodies were detected in some of infected animals in the second, third, and fourth week after infection. The stimulation and/or immunological suppression varied between the M. bovis isolates used for the inoculation. All M. bovis isolates induced a rise of APP and gamma globulin concentrations in infected calves. However, in this study the mucosal immune response appeared to be down-regulated, which was expressed with a general lack of IgA stimulation.

Open access

Katarzyna Dudek, Dariusz Bednarek and Ewelina Szacawa

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony variant (MmmSC) and Mycoplasma agalactiae antibodies in ruminants from different provinces/regions of Poland. Eight hundred and ten bovine serum samples were examined for MmmSC antibodies by the use of competitive ELISA (c-ELISA) and complement fixation test (CFT). ELISA was also used for M. agalactiae antibody detection in 951 serum samples of sheep and goats. The first screening serological examination of MmmSC antibodies using c-ELISA revealed two (0.25%) positive and 135 (16.92%) doubtful results. The second examination revealed only 52 doubtful results, whereas the rest samples were negative. To compare, the final confirmatory examination by CFT gave 100% of seronegative results. The examination performed in small ruminants demonstrated only one doubtful result, which was finally defined as negative following the second ELISA, whereas the remaining samples were negative. To conclude, the present serological study showed the lack of infections in Polish domestic ruminant caused by two mycoplasmas.

Open access

K. Dudek, D. Bednarek, A.K. Siwicki, E. Rokita and T. Studziński

Abstract

The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of LPS injections on non-specific mechanisms of immunity in pigeons. On the first day of observation the experimental birds (n=18) were intravenously injected with Escherichia coli LPS (10 μg/kg b.w.), while the control animals (n=6) received in the same way apyrogenic physiological saline. On the second and the third day of the experiment LPS in the same doses was injected again. Four and a half hours after the saline and each pyrogen administration blood samples were collected from the control and experimental pigeons. The total protein, gamma globulin, lysozyme, acute phase protein (Cp, CRP, Tf, ferritin, Alb) and selected trace element (Fe, Cu, Zn) concentrations were investigated. The obtained results showed the increase in the concentration of total protein, Cp, CRP and Tf in endotoxin fever resulting from LPS injection in pigeons. In contrast, the concentration of gamma globulins, ferritin and Alb were decreased in response to the first LPS injection. However, the consecutive injections of LPS caused a decrease in the concentration of total protein, CRP and Tf. In opposition to those results, a significant rise in the lysozyme and ferritin concentrations was observed. On the other hand, the first LPS injection caused a decline in the iron and zinc concentrations which remaining lower than the control values following repeated administration of LPS. On the contrary, the copper concentration increased successively in response to the next LPS injections.

Open access

Katarzyna Dudek, Krzysztof Lutnicki, Dariusz Bednarek, Jan Marczuk, Anna Kycko and Michał Reichert

Abstract

The aim of the study was to assess the changes of blood parameters in 12 three-week-old Polish Merino sheep subjected to experimental jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) infection.

Material and Methods: Haematological (WBC with leukocyte subpopulations: GRA, LYM, MID, and RBC, MCV, MCH, MCHC, HGB, HCT, PLT, and MPV) and biochemical blood parameters (acid/base balance, cation/anion content, and gasometry) were determined in blood samples collected one month after JSRV infection, then at four-week intervals for five consecutive months.

Results: A decrease in RBC, HCT, MCV, PLT, MPV, and LYM values in comparison with controls was found in the last month of observation. On the other hand, at the same time, an increase in HGB, MCH, MCHC, WBC, MID, and GRA indices was observed. Moreover, at the end of experiment blood gasometric indices such as pCO2, HCO3, and tCO2, and Na and K ion concentrations were higher in the affected lambs than in the healthy animals. The pH values of the challenged animals exhibited less alkaline character than in the case of controls, which was associated with a decrease in O2% saturation. However, the majority of differences between JSRV inoculated and control groups was not statistically significant.

Conclusion: The observed changes in the examined blood parameters can be considered as prodromal symptoms in the preclinical phase of adenocarcinoma development associated with JSRV infection.

Open access

Stanisław Małek, Katarzyna Krakowian, Michał Jasik, Katarzyna Dudek and Martin Bátor

Abstract

Dieback of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst) which has been observed in the Western Carpathians is of interest to scientists from many disciplines.. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of deforestation on water chemical composition in mountainous streams and springs. The research was carried out in 2004 and 2013 in two catchments of the Skrzyczne massif in the Silesian Beskid Mountains. Field studies included measurements of water pH and conductivity. Under laboratory conditions, there were determined concentrations: Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, NH4 +, Cl-, NO3 -, SO4 2 in each water sample. The results of physical and chemical analyses of water collected within the Malinowski catchment (covered mainly with spruce stands) and on northern slopes of the Skrzyczne massif - within the Czyrna catchment (covered mainly with beech stands), showed higher contents of base cations when compared to deforested areas. The highest concentrations of the ions analysed were recorded within the Czyrna catchment. Such phenomena should be taken into consideration during forest reconstruction after spruce dieback.

Open access

K. Dudek, D. Bednarek, E. Szacawa, R.D. Ayling, M.K. Krzysiak and J. Marczuk

Abstract

European bison (Bison bonasus) from two different areas of Eastern Poland showing gross pathology possibly associated with mycoplasma infections were tested for ruminant Mycoplasma species using serological and molecular methods. Fifty-five samples, blood or tissue were collected from 28 animals during 2013-2014. Six sera were positive for Mycoplasma bovis. The ELISA and complement fixation test for Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides gave a few weak reactions, but were negative by immunoblotting and molecular methods.