The aim of the study is to determine the pace and directions of changes (understood as: improvement or deterioration) occurring in selected areas of sustainable development of EU Member States. The paper analyzes dynamics of changes in selected areas of sustainable development monitored on the basis of headline indicators published by Eurostat from 2008 to 2015. In the paper, three variants of reference points of synthetic measure of development were considered. On the basis of the obtained results, the countries in which the improvement in the sustainable development and its deterioration can be observed were identified. The results have confirmed the existence of significant developmental disparities between EU Member States in this field, but it should be noted that the obtained results depend on the methodological approach both to the selection of features and the adoption of a specific standardization formula, as well as the considered variants of reference points. The results obtained can be utilized in subsequent years to examine the directions of change observed both from the point of view of European Union as one organization, and the individual EU Member States.
The main purpose of the paper is an expert assessment of the relationship existing between selected indicators carried out using a relatively new tool in economic sciences: Fuzzy Cognitive Maps. The effect of its application is a graphical presentation of the relationship between the factors identified as the key ones. In the paper 23 indicators, describing four selected goals in the Strategy for Sustainable Development, 2030 Agenda were selected. It is assumed that the sustainable development goals should be related but according to the experts opinion this only applies to some indicators. This kind of relationships can be certainly identified in the case of the goals describing social and economic development, but often also economic and environmental development. However, the research results presented in the paper do not always confirm the existence of connections between individual indicators selected for the description of the goals of sustainable development. The paper tries to explain this problem.
The principle of transparency not only is changing but its importance is increasing. International organizations, including the OECD, are seeking to develop harmonized standards of transparency in public administration. This fact is of particular importance in the search for common solutions for the OECD countries in the implementation of transparency standards, but also this organisation has sought adequate methods for measuring implementation of these standards. The main purpose of the study is to analyze the level of spatial homogeneity in the area of application of the standards of “integrity” of the OECD, which are an expression of the principle of transparency in the member states of this organization, on the European continent. In the study vector calculus was used.