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  • Author: Katarzyna Blicharz-Domańska x
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Open access

Justyna Miłek and Katarzyna Blicharz-Domańska

Abstract

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a large group of enveloped viruses with a single-strand RNA genome, which continuously circulate in mammals and birds and pose a threat to livestock, companion animals, and humans. CoVs harboured by avian species are classified to the genera gamma- and deltacoronaviruses. Within the gamma-CoVs the main representative is avian coronavirus, a taxonomic name which includes the highly contagious infectious bronchitis viruses (IBVs) in chickens and similar viruses infecting other domestic birds such as turkeys, guinea fowls, or quails. Additionally, IBVs have been detected in healthy wild birds, demonstrating that they may act as the vector between domestic and free-living birds. Moreover, CoVs other than IBVs, are identified in wild birds, which suggests that wild birds play a key role in the epidemiology of other gammaCoVs and deltaCoVs. Development of molecular techniques has significantly improved knowledge of the prevalence of CoVs in avian species. The methods adopted in monitoring studies of CoVs in different avian species are mainly based on detection of conservative regions within the viral replicase, nucleocapsid genes, and 3’UTR or 5’UTR. The purpose of this review is to summarise recent discoveries in the areas of epidemiology and diagnosis of CoVs in avian species and to understand the role of wild birds in the virus distribution.

Open access

Katarzyna Domańska-Blicharz, Anna Jacukowicz and Zenon Minta

Abstract

Between 2008 and 2011, commercial turkey flocks in Poland were examined for the presence of rotaviruses. Ten faecal swabs from each of 207 turkey flocks (turkeys aged one to 19 weeks) were collected in different regions of the country and tested using a PCR assay that targeted the NSP4 gene. The prevalence of rotavirus was 20.3% in the flocks tested. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a clear division into groups dependent on geographical origin of the analysed viruses. All Polish rotaviruses belonged to the European group. However, they were found to be genetically variable based on the sequence analysis. The most frequently identified rotaviruses belonged to RV-1 subgroup and two of them formed a distinct subgroup of RV-2. Rotaviruses were detected in healthy and enteric turkeys. The observed amino acid changes probably did not affect the group affiliation, nor the pathogenecity of the studied rotavirus strains.

Open access

Anna Pikuła, Katarzyna Domańska-Blicharz, Rytis Cepulis and Krzysztof Śmietanka

Abstract

Introduction: Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a causative agent of immunosuppressive disorder resulting in significant losses to the world poultry industry. This study describes the molecular characterisation of an atypical IBDV from a field outbreak that occurred in vaccinated chicken flocks in Latvia in 2011.

Material and Methods: Ten bursae of Fabricius from each flock were collected for laboratory examination. Virus isolation was performed in embryonated eggs and CEF culture. The RT-PCR aimed at hypervariable domain of VP2 gene combined with sequencing was performed for detection and identification of IBDV.

Results: The molecular examinations confirmed the IBDV infection. The analysis of the amino acid sequence revealed that the strain possessed four amino acids at VP2 protein (222A, 256I, 294I, and 299S), indicating a genetic relatedness to a very virulent IBDV. However, some unique or rare amino acid substitutions (219L, 220F, 254D, 279N, and 280T) were also detected.

Conclusion: The obtained results demonstrate the occurrence of IBDV with a high mutation rate within the hypervariable domain of VP2 peptide, and highlight the necessity of implementation of IBDV surveillance in Eastern European poultry industry to determine whether this strain is an exception or a new wave of IBDV with new genetic features emerged in the field.

Open access

Joanna Sajewicz-Krukowska, Monika Olszewska-Tomczyk and Katarzyna Domańska-Blicharz

Abstract

Introduction: Due to their immunostimulatory properties TLR ligands are used prophylactically to protect against a variety of viral and bacterial pathogens in mammals. Knowledge of the molecular and functional aspects of TLRs is essential for a better understanding of the immune system and resistance to diseases in birds. For that reason, this study attempted to determine the impact of TLR21 stimulation by its synthetic ligand (CpG ODN, class B) on the chicken immune system.

Material and Methods: Sixty embryonated chicken eggs were randomly allocated into three groups (control and two experimental groups). On day 18 of embryonic development, chickens in one experimental group were administered in ovo a low dose of CpG ODN and the birds of the second experimental group were given a high dose of the ligand. Spleens were collected at 1, 2, 5, and 10 days post-hatching (dph) for analysis of IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-10 expression using qRT-PCR.

Results: Significant differences were observed in mRNA expression levels of all the measured cytokines associated with the modulation and regulation of the immune response at different time points.

Conclusion: The obtained data clearly demonstrate that immune response induction takes place after in ovo administration of class B CpG ODN, and that the ligand has the ability to induce cytokine responses in neonatal chicken spleen.

Open access

Michał Jóźwiak, Krzysztof Wyrostek, Katarzyna Domańska-Blicharz, Monika Olszewska-Tomczyk, Krzysztof Śmietanka and Zenon Minta

Abstract

Introduction: The aim of the study was to test the utility of Flinders Technology Associates filter paper (FTA® Cards) for molecular detection and storage of avian influenza virus (AIV). Material and Methods: There were two strains of AIV used in the study: low pathogenicity H7N1 and high pathogenicity H5N1 subtypes. Detection of viral material was conducted using molecular RT-PCR and rRT- PCR method. Results: The infectivity of LPAIV/H7N1 and HPAIV/H5N1 was completely inactivated within 1 h and 24 h after adsorption to FTA® Cards at room temperature, respectively. Viruses stored on FTA® Cards had detection limit approximately 1 log10 lower than live viruses. Viral RNA of both strains were detectable on the cards by rRT-PCR for a minimum of 150 d, irrespectively of storage temperatures (room temperature, -20ºC). RNA was also detected in all samples obtained from SPF chickens experimentally infected with HPAI/H5N1 on 3rd and 4th day post-infection (p.i.).

Conclusion: FTA® Cards enable safe and effective alternative transport of samples for molecular diagnosis of AIV.