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Katarzyna Rutkowska and Józef Bergier

Abstract

Many sports (for instance soccer) are stereotypically perceived as a male activity. Even so, more and more women decide to become competitive athletes. Since the theory of sport requires comprehensive explanations and the practice of sport needs clear guidelines, interdisciplinary studies into the nature of sport, including its psychological aspects, are necessary. Analysing the psychological profile of female soccer players, particularly those who are about to become professional athletes, can provide many interesting insights into the specific character of female youth sport and show where improvements can be made in athletic training programmes (especially in mental training). It is therefore important to study psychological gender that determines social behaviours and to analyse female athletes’ emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence is defined as a set of emotional competencies that determine the effectiveness of human behaviours. Psychological gender and emotional intelligence have a significant effect on human adaptability and the efficiency of psychosocial functioning. This research was undertaken with the dual purpose of identifying the psychological gender and emotional intelligence of female soccer players. It involved 54 secondary-school girls, some of whom attended a sports class and others played on the Polish national team. The following tools were used to carry out the research: the Gender Assessment Inventory (IPP [This and the other acronyms derive from the Polish language]-developed by Kuczyńska) and the Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (INTE; created by Jaworowska and Matczak). As shown by the analysis of the results, most female soccer players in the study were androgynous and the level of their emotional intelligence was significantly higher than in other participants. This also seems to point to their significantly greater adaptability. At the same time, the level of emotional intelligence in many players was average or low, which seems insufficient and calls for adequate intervention measures to be taken.

Open access

Katarzyna Rutkowska, Józef Bergier and Zbigniew Witkowski

Abstract

Purpose. The objective of the present study to analyse the styles of coping with stress and the locus of control (LOC) in specific sporting situations of female football players and seeking relationships between the analysed variables. Methods. The study included 50 female football players aged 16-18 years. Two psychological instruments were administered: the Polish language Questionnaire for Examining Locus of Control in Sports Activity (PKSPwS) and the Polish version of the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS). Results. The mean level of the investigated LOC dimensions as well as the styles of coping with stress showed that behaviour associated with avoidance and emotions predominated over task-oriented style. However, taskoriented style was positively related to the locus of control in specific situations that occur in sport. Conclusions. The results of the study suggest that social support and educational initiatives adapted to female athletes are required. These include mental training and the psycho-pedagogical intervention of coaches, where emphasis should be placed on enhancing internal locus of control as well as the development and improvement of effective stress-coping styles.

Open access

Katarzyna Rutkowska, Józef Bergier and Marcin Kasprowicz

Abstract

Purpose. One of the keys to identifying health problems from the holistic perspective is the knowledge of Type D personality (distressed personality). Diagnosing this personality disorder among female football players may help sports psychologists, coaches, parents/caregivers, and all those engaged in training new sports entrants develop guidelines on how to resolve the problem. Methods. The study involved female footballers representing a Polish Ekstraliga football club, AZS-PSW Biała Podlaska, and was conducted with the use of the Polish adaptation of the DS14 scale. Results. In a group of 21 footballers, 7 (33.3%) were diagnosed with Type D personality. Besides, a negative correlation was noted between the level of satisfaction with playing football and one of the dimensions of Type D personality - negative emotionality. Conclusions. The results of the study may be applicable in formulating practical recommendations while preparing mental training programmes.

Open access

Katarzyna Bergier, Elżbieta Kuźniak, Marzena Wielanek, Aleksandra Królicka and Maria Skłodowska

We compared the biochemical profiles of Physalis ixocarpa hairy roots transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes ATCC and A4 strains with non-transformed root cultures. The studied clones of A4- and ATCC-induced hairy roots differed significantly; the latter showed greater growth potential and greater ability to produce secondary metabolites (tropane alkaloids) and to biotransform hydroquinone to arbutin. We compared glucose content, alanine and aspartate aminotransferase activity, and L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity. We analyzed markers of prooxidant/antioxidant homeostasis: catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, oxidase, glutathione peroxidase and transferase activity, and the levels of ascorbate, glutathione, tocopherol and lipid peroxidation. We found that transformation induced strain-specific regulation, including regulation based on redox signals, determining the rate of allocation of carbon and nitrogen resources to secondary metabolism pathways. Our results provide evidence that A. rhizogenes strain-specific modification of primary metabolites contributed to regulation of secondary metabolism and could determine the ability of P. ixocarpa hairy root clones to produce tropane alkaloids and to convert exogenously applied hydroquinone to pharmaceutically valuable arbutin. Of the studied parameters, glucose content, L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity and alanine aminotransferases activity may be indicators of the secondary metabolite-producing potential of different P. ixocarpa hairy root clones.