Urszula Fałkowska, Katarzyna Adamczyk, Dorota Adamczyk, Ewelina Soroka, Véronique Petit and Marcin Olajossy
Introduction: The development of biological sciences, as well as cultural and civilizational changes have led to the emergence of practice within the medicine of science, called psychiatry. Already at the turn of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, Karl Jaspers - a German scholar - father of psychopathology - in the work “Allgemeine Psychopathologie” crystallized his intuitions in the field of psychopathology, which classifies and describes states that are deviations from the physiological mental state of a human being.
Material and method: his paper reviews available literature to approximate the symptoms of the most interesting psychopathological syndromes in psychiatry such as: Clerambault syndrome, Otheller syndrome, Cotard syndrome, Ekboma syndrome and Folie à deux.
Results: A multitude of psychopathological syndromes results from the wealth of survival of psychiatric patients. They represent the delusions of different contents that develop in a primitive way or as a consequence of other types of disorders. Psychopathological teams have been inspiring the poets and directors for centuries. The relationship between psychiatry and culture, film and literature undoubtedly testifies to its interdisciplinary nature.
Discussion: Despite the passage of time, the descriptions of these syndromes with a rich historical description, symptomatology and criteria have not lost their relevance and are still a clinical reality.
Ewelina Dziwota, Urszula Fałkowska, Katarzyna Adamczyk, Dorota Adamczyk, Alena Stefańska, Justyna Pawęzka and Marcin Olajossy
Rett syndrome is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder and, because of some behavioral characteristics, individuals affected by the disease are known as silent angels. Girls with Rett syndrome perform stereotyped movements, they have learning difficulties, their reaction time is prolonged, and they seem alienated in the environment. These children require constant pediatric, neurological and orthopedic care. In the treatment of Rett syndrome physical therapy, music therapy, hydrotherapy, hippotherapy, behavioral methods, speech therapy and diet, are also used. In turn, psychological therapy of the syndrome is based on the sensory integration method, using two or more senses simultaneously. In 80% of cases, the syndrome is related to mutations of the MECP2 gene, located on chromosome X. The pathogenesis of Rett syndrome is caused by the occurrence of a non-functional MeCP2 protein, which is a transcription factor of many genes, i.e. Bdnf, mef2c, Sgk1, Uqcrc1. Abnormal expression of these genes reveals a characteristic disease phenotype. Clinical symptoms relate mainly to the nervous, respiratory, skeletal and gastrointestinal systems. Currently causal treatment is not possible. However, researchers are developing methods by which, perhaps in the near future, it will be possible to eliminate the mutations in the MECP2 gene, and this will give a chance to the patient for normal functioning.
The paper presents the etiology and pathogenesis of the disease, genetic, clinical, pharmacological aspects and other forms of Rett syndrome treatment.
Dariusz Boguszewski, Jakub Grzegorz Adamczyk, Katarzyna Boguszewska, Dominika Wrzosek, Natalia Mrozek, Marta Waloch and Dariusz Białoszewski
Study aim: The objective of the study was to reveal the functional limits of the motor system in women practising combat sports and team sports.
Material and methods: 102 women (mean age 25.2 years, body mass 62.2 kg, body height 168.3 cm) practising competitive ITF (International Taekwon-Do Federation) taekwon-do (n = 22), Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ) (n = 15), football (n = 35) and basketball (n = 30) participated in the study. The assessment tool was the FMS test, comprising 7 movement patterns scored on a scale of 0–3.
Results: The studied female athletes earned medium scores. Women practising combat sports scored generally higher in the FMS test, although the difference was not significant (combat sports – mean value 15.57 ± 2.39, team sports – mean value 14.72 ± 1.93, difference – p = 0.07). Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed in the second (hurdle step) and the fifth pattern (active straight leg raise – ASLR). The aggregated FMS results of female taekwon-do (15.77) and BJJ athletes (15.22) were similar. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed in one pattern (ASLR). Women practising football (14.77) and basketball (14.67) attained a similar level of results in the test. Statistically significant differences were noted in two trials: footballers scored higher in the ASLR task (p < 0.05), and basketball players scored higher in rotary stability (p < 0.01).
Conclusion: A statistically significant result in the FMS test was obtained by martial arts athletes, which may point to a higher level of functional movement, which may be a result of more universal training.
Dariusz Boguszewski, Jakub Grzegorz Adamczyk, Katarzyna Kerbaum, Bartłomiej Antoniak, Anna Obszyńska-Litwiniec and Dariusz Białoszewski
Introduction. Martial arts and combat sports are practical sports that are being practised by an increasing number of women. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the ability of female judo, taekwondo and karate competitors to fall safely and their susceptibility to injuries during falls.
Material and methods. A total of 120 persons participated in the research. The study group consisted of 45 female judo, taekwondo (WTF) and karate Shotokan competitors; in the control group there were 75 persons who did not practise sport professionally. The research tools included the Test of Susceptibility to Injury during Falls (TSIDF) developed by Kalina and a questionnaire designed by the authors.
Results. The female martial arts competitors had considerably lower TSIDF results (p<0.001), which means that they made fewer errors when performing motor tasks. The mean result of the TSIDF was 2.48 for the study group and 6.08 for the control one. Significant differences (p<0.001) were found between the groups for all types of errors and all of the motor tasks.
Conclusions. Women practising combat sports and martial arts made significantly fewer errors in the Test of Susceptibility to Injuries During Falls, which can be seen as evidence for the practical usefulness of the training they are undergoing.
Andrzej Zybert, Halina Sieczkowska, Katarzyna Antosik, Grzegorz Adamczyk, Elżbieta Krzęcio-Nieczyporuk and Maria Koćwin-Podsiadła
The objective of this study was to determine phenotypic relations between glycolytic potential (GP) measured 45 min postmortem and meat quality traits of stress-resistant fatteners, with consideration of carcass chilling system. The investigations involved 35 Duroc fattening pigs whose left halfcarcasses were chilled conventionally (4°C for 24 h) and right half-carcasses were rapidly chilled in a three-phase chilling tunnel (-10°C for 15 min, -15°C for 25 min and -5°C for 40 min with air velocity of 3 m/s). In this study we showed that rapid chilling significantly slows the rate of pH fall from 2 to 96 h after slaughter. The negative relationship between glycolytic potential and pH (especially 24 h postmortem) was stronger for conventionally chilled carcasses but the regression coefficient (b) does not suggest increased rate of pH fall in meat of conventionally chilled carcasses (especially compared to rapid chilling) at the later stages of conversion of muscle to meat (from 24 to 144 h after slaughter). In this investigation GP was positively correlated to drip loss at 48 h postmortem, and a stronger correlation was noted for rapidly chilled carcasses. Moreover, the regression coefficient indicates that rapid chilling to 48 h postmortem can cause a slightly higher drip loss from meat than when the carcasses are chilled conventionally (0.55 vs. 0.46 percentage points per 10 μmol/g GP). At the later stages of conversion of muscle to meat (96 and 144 h postmortem) the correlation and regression coefficients were the same regardless of the chilling system.
Andrzej Zybert, Elżbieta Protasiuk, Katarzyna Antosik, Halina Sieczkowska, Elżbieta Krzęcio-Nieczyporuk, Grzegorz Adamczyk and Maria Koćwin-Podsiadła
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the range of pH decline from 45 min to 48 h after the slaughter on the quality of meat in (Landrace × Yorkshire) × Hampshire fattening pigs. The mean value and standard deviation for the range of pH fall from 45 min to 48 h postmortem served to create the following experimental groups: group I with pH decline less or equal to 0.88 units pH; group II with pH decline higher than 0.88 but lower than 1.26 pH units; and group III where pH decline was equal to 1.26 units or higher. This investigation showed that glycolytic resources in meat (glycogen and lactate) were connected with the range of pH decline from 45 min to 48 h postmortem. The different ultimate pH in meat with the same lactate concentration was noted (group I vs. II). Although the range and the rate of pH decline from 3 h postmortem was higher and significantly faster (P≤0.05 and 0.01) in both groups with a higher pH fall (groups II and III), there was no statistically confirmed influence of the investigated range of pH fall on drip loss and on colour. The average values for drip loss and colour obtained in this experiment were related to ultimate pH of meat of (L × Y) × H fatteners, being characteristic for acid meat