Katarina Valaskova, Viera Bartosova and Pavol Kubala
Background and Purpose: Behavioural finance is a relatively new, but rapidly evolving field that provides explanations of an economic decision-making by cognitive psychology, conventional economic and financial theory. Behavioural finance searches the influence of psychology on the behaviour of financial practitioners and the subsequent effects on the financial markets. The purpose of the paper is the research on behavioural aspects of financial decision-making as they help explain why and how markets might be inefficient.
Design/Methodology/Approach: Fuzzy logic is an excellent tool for working with linguistic variables that are often found when working with behavioural data. Thus, we analyse the financial decision-making process from the perspective of behavioural finance aimed at better understanding of the decision-making process of investors applying the principles of fuzzy logic to solve various financial problems.
Results: The results of the study indicate that fuzzy logic is applicable when solving problems of financial management and financial decision-making problems. The urgency of the fuzzy logic application for managerial and financial decisions should be emphasized. Research in this area indicates that in some cases, as in the case of behavioural financing, the use of fuzzy logic is far more suitable than the use of other methods (Peters, Aguiar and Sales).
Conclusion: The novelty of the paper is to extend the application of fuzzy sets in the area of financial decision-making. The paper demonstrates that despite the fact, that fuzzy logic is currently used mainly in technical directions, it is applicable also in financial management, especially, in cases where it is necessary to consider the influence of human and the occurrence of linguistic variables.
Ivana Podhorska, Maria Kovacova and Katarina Valaskova
The issue of enterprise in bankrupt or financial health as a whole is still very actual topic not only in Slovakia but also in abroad. Works dealing with the enterprise in bankruptcy have already appeared in the 1930s of the 20th century. Bankrupt of enterprise affect all subject in relationship with this enterprise. Financial experts were looking for the ways for enterprise bankrupt prediction. This article is based on the searching for key factors that could indicate the enterprise in bankrupt in Slovak conditions. This article tries to work with financial variables from the area of financial health assessment of enterprise and works with the sample of Slovak enterprises. This sample includes 8,522 financial statements of enterprises in 2016. According to several relevant decisions rules, for example, the value of equity or equity debt ratio, enterprises are divided into two categories – bankrupt enterprises and creditworthy enterprises. Subsequently, this article tries to find statistically significant financial variables that could indicate involving enterprises in these two categories and works with several statistical methods for searching significant relationship between variables and the tightness of relations between them. As a main statistical method, Pearson´s correlation coefficient is used, which is supported by correlation matrices. In addition, it is necessary to test an existence of outliers in the sample of enterprises. Existence of outliers is tested by the Grubbs test of outliers.