Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most frequently diagnosed malignancy in men worldwide. The introduction of prostate specific antigen (PSA) has greatly increased the number of men diagnosed with PCa but at the same time, as a result of the low specificity, led to overdiagnosis, resulting to unnecessary biopsies and high medical cost treatments.
The primary goal in PCa research today is to find a biomarker or biomarker set for clear and effecttive diagnosis of PCa as well as for distinction between aggressive and indolent cancers. Different proteomic technologies such as 2-D PAGE, 2-D DIGE, MALDI MS profiling, shotgun proteomics with label-based (ICAT, iTRAQ) and label-free (SWATH) quantification, MudPIT, CE-MS have been applied to the study of PCa in the past 15 years. Various biological samples, including tumor tissue, serum, plasma, urine, seminal plasma, prostatic secretions and prostatic-derived exosomes were analyzed with the aim of identifying diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and developing a deeper understanding of the disease at the molecular level.
This review is focused on the overall analysis of expression proteomics studies in the PCa field investigating all types of human samples in the search for diagnostics biomarkers. Emphasis is given on proteomics platforms used in biomarker discovery and characterization, explored sources for PCa biomarkers, proposed candidate biomarkers by comparative proteomics studies and the possible future clinical application of those candidate biomarkers in PCa screening and diagnosis. In addition, we review the specificity of the putative markers and existing challenges in the proteomics research of PCa.
Katarina Davalieva, S Kiprijanovska, P Noveski, D Plaseska-Karanfilska, T Plaseski and B Kocevska
Seminal plasma is a potential source of biomarkers for many disorders of the male reproductive system including male infertility. Knowledge of the peptide and protein components of seminal fluid is accumulating especially with the appearance of highthroughput MS-based techniques. Of special interest in the field of male infertility biomarkers, is the identification and characterization of differentially expressed proteins in seminal plasma of men with normal and impaired spermatogenesis. However, the data obtained until now is still quite heterogeneous and with small percentage of overlap between independent studies. Extensive comparative analysis of seminal plasma proteome is still needed in order to establish a potential link between seminal plasma proteins and male infertility.