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  • Author: Katarína Ondreičková x
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Open access

Michaela Piliarová, Katarína Ondreičková, Martina Hudcovicová, Daniel Mihálik and Ján Kraic

Abstract

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi living in the soil closely collaborate with plants in their root zone and play very important role in their evolution. Their symbiosis stimulates plant growth and resistance to different environmental stresses. Plant root system, extended by mycelium of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, has better capability to reach the water and dissolved nutrients from a much larger volume of soil. This could solve the problem of imminent depletion of phosphate stock, affect plant fertilisation, and contribute to sustainable production of foods, feeds, biofuel, and raw materials. Expanded plant root systems reduce erosion of soil, improve soil quality, and extend the diversity of soil microflora. On the other hand, symbiosis with plants affects species diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and increased plant diversity supports diversity of fungi. This review summarizes the importance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in relation to beneficial potential of their symbiosis with plants, and their function in the ecosystem.

Open access

Katarína Ondreičková, Alžbeta Žofajová, Michaela Piliarová, Jozef Gubiš and Martina Hudcovicová

Abstract

In this study, bacterial genetic diversity from the rhizosphere of barley and wheat were studied. The plants were sown in pots with aliquot amount of 15 t/ha concentration of soil additive derived from sewage sludge and agricultural by-products represented by wastes from grain mill industry and crushed corn cobs. The plants sown in pots without the addition of soil additive represented control samples. The rhizosphere samples were collected on two dates (plant flowering and maturity) and the composition of bacterial communities were detected using two molecular fingerprinting methods – automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). Microbial biomass expressed as the amount of metagenomics DNA was higher in soils with addition of soil additive, except during maturity stage in barley rhizosphere. Nevertheless, statistically significant differences between control and sludge samples were not detected in any case. Similarly, no changes were detected in the composition of bacterial community between control and sludge samples in barley and wheat rhizosphere by using cluster analysis. Only minor temporal changes in the composition of bacterial community between flowering and maturity periods were observed. These changes were related to the samples collected in the plant maturity stage. In this stage, plants were completely mature and their impact on the rhizosphere bacterial communities in the form of root exudates was limited. Statistically significant differences between ARISA and T-RFLP methods were detected in all measured values of diversity indices. Despite these differences, both methods gave results leading to similar conclusions.

Open access

Katarína Ondreičková, Mária Babulicová, Daniel Mihálik, Marcela Gubišová and Jozef Gubiš

Abstract

Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to determine the bacterial community diversity in crop rotations with different proportion of cereals (40%, 60% and 80%) and various fertilisation treatments (F1 - mineral fertiliser amendment + the application of organic fertiliser Veget® and F2 - mineral fertilisation) sampled on two dates (July and October 2012). No statistically significant differences in the number of terminal restriction fragments were detected by Fisher´s least significant difference between two types of fertilisation or among samples with different proportion of cereals. In contrast, statistically significant differences were detected between samples collected in July and October, when in October there was a 43.5% reduction in the number of bacterial species in comparison with July. Principal component analysis as well as cluster analysis showed that a higher similarity in composition of bacterial communities was present among all soil samples collected in July and two samples collected in October. Other samples collected in October were separated from each other. The results of this study demonstrated that bacteria abundance and community composition were not affected by the proportion of cereals and fertiliser used.

Open access

Katarína Ondreičková, Marcela Gubišová, Jozef Gubiš, Lenka Klčová and Miroslav Horník

Abstract

Application of sewage sludge to soil is a potentially inexpensive source of nutrition for plants, but may contain undesirable and toxic substances, e.g. heavy metals. Alterations in microbial communities can serve as an environmental indicator of possible soil contamination. We used two molecular fingerprinting methods (Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis, ARISA and Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism, T-RFLP) to study changes in the genetic diversity of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere of Arundo donax L. cultivated in the soil fertilised with additive based on sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plant and agricultural by-products represented by crushed corn hobs and wastes from grain mill industry. The metagenomic DNA extracted from rhizosphere samples were collected in August and November 2014. The amount of mgDNA was statistically higher in samples with additive than in control samples without it in both dates. The Venn diagrams showed that operational taxonomic units which were common to all samples were represented in 32.8% in ARISA and 43.4% in T-RFLP. However, based on Principal component analysis and subsequent PERMANOVA statistical tests did not confirm significant differences in the rhizosphere of control plants and plants grown in the soil supplemented with sewage sludge in dose 5 and 15 t/ha present in the additive.

Open access

Katarína Ondreičková and Ján Kraic

Abstract

Field trials with the genetic modified (GM) maize stacked hybrid NK603 × MON810 performed in two different locations in the Czech Republic were used for evaluation of genetic diversity of rhizosphere bacterial communities using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. Statistically significant differences in the number of terminal restriction fragments (i.e. bacterial richness) between GM and non-GM maize were not detected. Diversity indices (Gini-Simpson and Shannon’s) revealed higher bacterial diversity in non-GM sample from location Ivanovice na Hané and in the GM maize from location Probluz, but statistical significant differences between GM and non-GM samples were not detected. Additionally, using principal component analysis and cluster analysis, no substantial variation in the composition of bacterial communities between GM and conventional maize were observed but the differences among individual collection sites were recorded.

Open access

Katarína Ondreičková, Andrej Ficek, Daniel Mihálik, Marcela Gubišová, Martina Hudcovicová, Hana Drahovská and Ján Kraic

Abstract

The terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism munities from different collecting places was evaluated was used to determine the bacterial diversity in rhizo- by principal component analysis. Results showed that sphere of maize (Zea mays L.) collected from four sites the most different bacterial community originated from of experimental field plot in two dates of the vegetation marginal part of the experimental field plot collected in season (July and September). The 16S rRNA gene was September was caused probably by combination of the amplified from metagenomic DNA using universal eubac- marginal effect and drought before sampling date in Sep- terial primers and PCR products were digested separately tember. Other rhizosphere samples showed from moderate with three restriction enzymes. Significant differences in to small differences in the structure of the bacterial com- the number of terminal restriction fragments among rhi- munity. Nevertheless, significant differences among all zosphere samples and between sampling dates were not collected bacterial communities were not observed. detected (P < 0.05). Variation within the bacterial communities from different collecting places was evaluated by principal component analysis. Results showed that the most different bacterial community originated from marginal part of the experimental field plot collected in September was caused probably by combination of the marginal effect and drought before sampling date in September. Other rhizosphere samples showed from moderate to small differences in the structure of the bacterial community. Nevertheless, significant differences among all collected bacterial communities were not observed.

Open access

Katarína Hrčková, Peter Mihalčík, Štefan Žák, Roman Hašana, Katarína Ondreičková and Ján Kraic

Abstract

The parameters determining the agronomic and economic performance of genetically modified maize hybrid MON 89034 × NK603 and conventional hybrids were compared under conditions that eliminated the herbicide tolerance in GM hybrid as well as the use of insecticides in conventional hybrids. The GM hybrid confirmed ability to protect itself against the European corn borer and its average grain yield was higher by 6.36-14.42% (i.e. 0.82-1.86 t/ha) in comparison with conventional hybrids. The year of cultivation statistically significant influenced agronomic parameters and the financial income of maize production. The maize genotype did not statistically significantly affected any evaluated parameter. The final income was statistically significant (P < 0.05) negatively influenced by all observed agronomic parameters with the exception of the seed price. The price of maize grains on the market was the only one factor that statistically significant (P < 0.05) influenced financial income of the maize production.

Open access

Martina Hudcovicová, Katarína Ondreičková, Pavol Hauptvogel and Ján Kraic

Abstract

A set of 33 wheat EST-SSR markers was designed and 18 from them were polymorphic and used for assessment of genetic diversity within 36 introduced genotypes of hexaploid bread wheat. Altogether 105 alleles were detected, in average 3.18 alleles per locus. Maximum number of alleles 14 was detected at the locus TDI389708. Five the most polymorphic markers were used for the evaluation and comparison of genetic variation within 46 domestic (Slovak) wheat genotypes and 36 introduced (foreign) wheat genotypes. The number of alleles per used primer pair within domestic genotypes varied from 7 to 19, with an average of 13.2 alleles, an average gene diversity 0.846 and PIC 0.980 per locus. The number of alleles per primer within introduced genotypes varied from 7 to 14, with an average of 10.8 alleles, an average gene diversity 0.780 and PIC 0.958 per locus. The level of polymorphism in EST- SSRs was sufficient for discrimination between genotypes and variation within domestic genotypes was slightly higher than in introduced genotypes. Variation revealed by 5 selected EST-SSR markers clustered genotypes according to origin. Domestic and introduced wheats were grouped distinctly into two separate groups.

Open access

Lenka Klčová, Katarína Ondreičková, Daniel Mihálik and Marcela Gubišová

Abstract

Wheat is one of three most important cereals worldwide. Its production rises every year. There is a possibility to improve quantitative and qualitative parameters by biolistic method of transformation. The process of introduction of desired gene into the wheat genome and plant regeneration is affected by many factors. To identify the suitable conditions, selection system, the influence of donor, plant environment and the regeneration capacity of wheat genotypes were tested. The scutella of immature embryos served as the initial explants. Plant regeneration was achieved by 6 out of 11 genotypes tested. The highest values were reached by the cultivar Ilias. The effect of donor, plant environment was evaluated by two genotypes. Plants from growth chamber appeared to be better source of explants compared to plants grown in the natural conditions. The selection system was optimized as follows: regeneration medium in the dark and subsequently in photoperiod conditions (DR) with 5 mg/l of phosphinotricin (PPT), shoot induction medium (DS) with 7 mg/l of PPT.