Importance of rural tourism as a specific form of tourism lies primarily in its potential to be a driving force for the development of rural municipalities and diversify their economic base. The aim of this paper is to verify this assumption, while analysing the relationship between the concentration of tourism activities and migration trends in rural municipalities in Slovakia. The results support the claim that tourism has significant positive effects manifested by a positive migration balance in municipalities where the tourism industry has a significant presence. The relationship between the level of net migration and rural tourism localisation index in rural areas is not entirely clear because of high diversity of rural municipalities. It is true that in the “catching-up” group of rural municipalities, where the previously negative trend of migration turned positive, localisation index of rural tourism reaches a peak, which may suggest that precisely this sector could be the driver of this positive development. On the other hand, there is a group of marginalized rural municipalities where the concentration of rural tourism industry measured by the index of localisation is also relatively high, but nevertheless, these municipalities suffer from a loss of population due to outmigration.
Agriculture is an important element of rural economy development, currently facing many problems. The unfinished process of economic transformation, division of land use and land ownership, disintegrated social networks, under-developed institutions – these are the problems hindering the knowledge economy enforcement. Among the agricultural enterprises there is a high level of distrust resulting into low cooperation, reluctance against partnerships and networks which represent the main instrument for knowledge economy enforcement. Moreover, the current EU agricultural policy which is adjusted for agricultural conditions in the old member states hampers innovation activities of agricultural enterprises and conserves inefficient structures in them.
Katarína Melichová, Ina Melišková and Lucia Palšová
In an increasingly urbanized world, the scarcity of space is a growing problem along with land consumption and soil sealing. To achieve sustainable development and sustainable land use, society has to resolve conflicts between residential, industrial, transport, commercial and green areas while creating a balance between social, economic and ecological targets. However, coordination of sustainable land use is a challenge for policymakers. The paper examines whether the withdrawal of land from the agricultural land fund leads to development, measured both by the increase in domestic entrepreneurial activity, as well as by the increase in foreign direct investments. The results are based on the analysis of panel data on the amount of land withdrawal, newly established firms and inward flow of FDI covering 41 administrative districts of Slovak Republic over 9 years (6 years in case of the FDI, due to the availability of data). Additionally, the spatial Durbin panel model was used to examine, whether land withdrawal and its non-agricultural use generate positive spillover effects on surrounding regions in terms of increased entrepreneurial activity and flow of FDI.
Marcela Chreneková, Katarína Melichová, Eleonóra Marišová and Serhiy Moroz
Informal economy is rather difficult to define and demarcate in the methodological context. International Conference of Labour Statisticians in 2003 adopted a set of guidelines regarding definition of statistical categories of informal employment. These include for example employed unregistered own-account workers, contributing family workers, persons who work based on oral agreement, etc. Informal economy is a contentious topic in many developing countries as it brings about many elements that from several aspects adversely affect the development. The most commonly stressed are the fiscal implications (associated with tax revenue loss) and some social concerns. However, in some parts of the world informal sector went from being considered as a negative occurrence to be tolerated as a partial solution to some of the challenges that hinder development of rural regions and communities. The aim of the paper is to determine the relationship between informal economy and level of development and quality of life in Ukrainian regions. The paper examines the role of informal economy in regional structure of Ukraine, while confronting the findings with regional divergence in relevant indicators of development and quality of life. There are statistically significant differences in the size of the informal employment among different types of Ukrainian regions (by rural-urban typology). With increasing share of informal employment in the regions, the income level of households decreases significantly even when we take into consideration the level of unemployment.
Viera Petrášová, Janka Beresecká, Jana Jarábková, Katarína Melichová and Maroš Valach
Creative garden architecture currently afects regional development in two ways. Firstly, it results in landscape architecture outputs, horticulture arrangements, and garden projects. Secondly, it constitutes an environment for the development of certain business activities, namely tourism and horticulture. Garden architecture is able to secure the development of land-based economy, replacing the decreased production of agricultural commodities, and thus contributing to regional development. Garden architecture businesses in the Nitra region are currently limited by the lack of their potential clients’ fnancial resources as well as the barriers to entrepreneurship created in the Slovak Republic. The number of the businesses in the region enables them to develop mutual cooperation without the need for strong competition. on the contrary, it encourages the diversifcation of business activities, various levels of their specialization and potential development of partnerships in a region.