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  • Author: Katalin Varga x
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Nest-site characteristics and breeding density of Magpie Pica pica in Sombor (NW Serbia)

In March 2009, active Magpie Pica pica nests were censused in the town of Sombor (Vojvodina, NW Serbia) to study nest-site characteristics, breeding density and spatial distribution. The area of the town can be divided into two parts according to different urban landscapes, i.e. the town centre (150 ha) and the residential area (2,224 ha). In total, 222 Magpie nests were found and their height, tree species and nest-site type determined. Nests were found in 25 tree and two shrub species, the most of them (31.1%) being placed in the commonest tree species in the town, the Common Hackberry Celtis occidentalis. The majority of the nests were found in tree avenues (39.6%) and groups of trees (31.5%). Nests in the town centre with a mean height (± SD) of 15.2 ± 4.05 m were significantly higher than those in the residential area with a mean height (± SD) of 11.4 ± 5.13 m. The mean distance of nests from the top of the canopy (± SD) was 1.5 ± 1.33 m, demonstrating the Magpie's tendency to place its nests in the very tops of trees in the urban areas. In the residential area, nests were present in every height class, while in the town centre they were not found lower than 5 m. This difference can be explained by denser human population in the town centre and hence greater disturbance (e.g. pedestrians), as found in several other studies, but also by the negative effect of high buildings that prevail there. Thus, the height of surrounding buildings, too, might play an important role in nest-site selection in Magpies breeding in urban habitats, especially in densely built-up areas. Breeding density of Magpie in Sombor was 0.94 pairs/10 ha, with almost twice as high in the town centre as in the residential area. The findings of this study are compared to those obtained in other studies in Serbia and abroad.


The education system in Hungary has been greatly criticized in the last decades regarding the standards and quality of education and its ignorance towards labour market demands. The present study focuses on factors affecting the quality of education. The first part of the research analyses the relationship between public education and competitiveness in Hungary. In the second part of the research, with the help of the linear regression model and of other statistical and mathematical tools, we tried to identify those explanatory variables which influence and mostly determine the quality of public education.

The quality of education was chosen as the dependent variable of the model. Based on the data of competency measurements in Hungary, we were able to identify two explanatory variables that would also highly satisfy the goodness of fit of the linear regression model. The educational funding rates (GDP-proportionate educational spending rate) and the number of students learning English language turned out to be the two significant explanatory variables. Results show that increasing the GDP-proportionate educational spending rate with only one per cent increases the average value of competency measures with 10.9571 points without any other variable changes. Also increasing the number of English language learners with one person increases the average value with 0.000177253 points with other variables remaining the same.


In this paper an application of the well-known matrix method to an extension of the classical logic to many-valued logic is discussed: we consider an n-valued propositional logic as a propositional logic language with a logical matrix over n truth-values. The algebra of the logical matrix has operations expanding the operations of the classical propositional logic. Therefore we look over the Łukasiewicz, Post, Heyting and Rosser style expansions of the operations negation, conjunction, disjunction and with a special emphasis on implication.

In the frame of consequence operation, some notions of semantic consequence are examined. Then we continue with the decision problem and the logical calculi. We show that the cause of difficulties with the notions of semantic consequence is the weakness of the reviewed expansions of negation and implication. Finally, we introduce an approach to finding implications that preserve both the modus ponens and the deduction theorem with respect to our definitions of consequence.


Aims: The ankle-brachial index is an efficient tool for objectively documenting the presence of lower extremity peripheral artery disease. However, its applicability for detection of critical leg ischemia is still controversial. We proposed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the ankle-brachial index for critical ischemia.

Materials and methods: Systolic blood pressure measurements for calculation of the ankle-brachial index were obtained in 90 patients with peripheral artery disease. Ankle-brachial index was computed in 3 different ways (using the lowest ankle pressure, the highest ankle pressure, and the mean of the ankle pressures), sensibility, specificity, positive and negative predictive value and overall accuracy for detecting critical ischemia were determined for each method. A value ≤ 0.4 was taken as cut-off point for critical leg ischemia. Prevalence of coronary and cerebrovascular atherosclerosis and conventional risk factors were also noted.

Results: Using the lowest ankle pressure for computing ankle-brachial index provided higher sensitivity, and lower specificity for detecting critical leg ischemia, using the highest pressure was less sensitive, but more specific, and the mean pressure index gave intermediate results. Overall accuracy was highest for the latest method. The prevalence of generalized atherosclerosis was high in peripheral artery disease, but we found no significant difference between the intermittent claudication and the critical ischemia group.

Conclusion: Ankle-brachial index measurements, regardless of the method used for calculation, cannot identify or rule out reliably critical leg ischemia. Peripheral artery disease confers an increased risk of cardiovascular disease regardless of symptom status or lower extremity perfusion severity.