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  • Author: Karthick Raj Mani x
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A supine cranio-spinal irradiation technique using moving field junctions

Abstract

Aim: To demonstrate a simple technique of cranio-spinal irradiation (CSI) in supine position using inter fraction moving field junctions to feather out any potential hot and cold spots.

Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients diagnosed with medulloblastoma were treated during the period February 2011 to June 2015 were included in this study. Out of fifteen patients in the study nine were male and 6 were female with a median age of 13.4 years (range 5-27 years). All the patients were positioned supine on CT simulation, immobilized using thermoplastic mask and aligned using room based laser system. Two parallel opposed lateral fields for the whole brain using an asymmetrical jaw with isocenter at C2 vertebral body. A posterior field also placed to cover the cervical and dorsal field using the same isocenter at C2. The second isocenter was placed at lumbar vertebral region to cover the remaining dorsal, lumbar and sacral region using an inter-fraction moving junction. Field-in-field and enhanced dynamic wedge used to homogeneous dose distribution when required.

Results and Discussion: In this study, we found that only two patients failed in the primary site, no radiation myelitis or recurrences in the filed junctions were reported in these fifteen patients with a median follow-up of 36.4 months. The automated sequence of treatment plans with moving junctions in the comfortable supine position negating the need for manual junction matching or junction shifts avoiding potential treatment errors and also facilitating delivery of anesthesia where necessary.

Open access
Open beam dosimetric characteristics of True Beam medical linear accelerator with flattening filter (WFF) and flattening filter free (FFF) beam

Abstract

True Beam medical linear accelerator is capable of delivering flattening filter free (FFF) and with flattening filter (WFF) photon beams. True Beam linear accelerator is equipped with five photon beam energies (6 FFF, 6 WFF, 10 FFF, 10 WFF and 15 WFF) as well as six electron beam energies (6 MeV, 9 MeV, 12 MeV, 15 MeV and 18 MeV). The maximum dose rate for the 6 WFF, 10 WFF and 15 WFF is 600 MU/min, whereas 6 FFF has a maximum dose rate of 1400 MU/min and 10 FFF with a maximum dose rate of 2400 MU/min. In this report we discussed the open beam dosimetric characteristics of True Beam medical linear accelerator with FFF and WFF beam. All the dosimetric data (i.e. depth dose, cross-line profiles, diagonal profiles, output factors, MLC transmission, etc.) for 6 MV, 6 FFF, 10 MV, 10 FFF and 15 MV were measured and compared with the published data of the True Beam. Multiple detectors were used in order to obtain a consistent dataset. The measured data has a good consistency with the reference golden beam data. The measured beam quality index for all the beams are in good agreement with the published data. The percentage depth dose at 10 cm depth of all the available photon beams was within the tolerance of the Varian acceptance specification. The dosimetric data shows consistent and comparable results with the published data of other True Beam linear accelerators. The dosimetric data provide us an appreciated perception and consistent among the published data and may be used for future references.

Open access
Comparison of cardiac and lung doses for breast cancer patients with free breathing and deep inspiration breath hold technique in 3 dimensional conformal radiotherapy - a dosimetric study

Abstract

Purpose: To investigate the cardio-pulmonary doses between Deep Inspiration Breath Hold (DIBH) and Free Breathing (FB) technique in left sided breast irradiation.

Materials & Methods: DIBH CT and FB CT were acquired for 10 left sided breast patients who underwent whole breast irradiation with or without nodal irradiation. Three fields single isocenter technique were used for patients with node positive patients along with two tangential conformal fields whereas only two tangential fields were used in node negative patients. All the critical structures like lungs, heart, esophagus, thyroid, etc., were delineated in both DIBH and FB scan. Both DIBH and FB scans were fused with the Dicom origin as they were acquired with the same Dicom coordinates. Plans were created in the DIBH scan for a dose range between 50 Gy in 25 fractions. Critical structures doses were recorded from the Dose Volume Histogram for both the DIBH and FB data set for evaluation.

Results: The average mean heart dose in DIBH vs FB was 13.18 Gy vs 6.97 Gy, (p = 0.0063) significantly with DIBH as compared to FB technique. The relative reduction in average mean heart dose was 47.12%. The relative V5 reduced by 14.70% (i.e. 34.42% vs 19.72%, p = 0.0080), V10 reduced by 13.83% (i.e. 27.79 % vs 13.96%, p = 0.0073). V20 reduced by 13.19% (i.e. 24.54 % vs 11.35%, p = 0.0069), V30 reduced by 12.38% (i.e. 22.27 % vs 9.89 %, p = 0.0073) significantly with DIBH as compared to FB. The average mean left lung dose reduced marginally by 1.43 Gy (13.73 Gy vs 12.30 Gy, p = 0.4599) but insignificantly with DIBH as compared to FB. Other left lung parameters (V5, V10, V20 and V30) shows marginal decreases in DIBH plans compare to FB plans.

Conclusion: DIBH shows a substantial reduction of cardiac doses but slight and insignificant reduction of pulmonary doses as compared with FB technique. Using the simple DIBH technique, we can effectively reduce the cardiac morbidity and at the same time radiation induced lung pneumonitis is unlikely to increase.

Open access
Dosimetric comparison of jaw tracking in intensity modulated and volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy for carcinoma of cervix

Abstract

Aim: To study the dosimetric advantages of the jaw tracking technique in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) for carcinoma of cervix patients.

Materials and Methods: We retrospectively selected ten previously treated cervix patients in this study. All the ten patients underwent CT simulation along with immobilization and positional devices. Targets and organ at risks (OARs) were delineated slice by slice for all the patients. All the patients were planned for IMRT and VMAT with intend to deliver 50 Gy in 25 fractions. All the plans were planned with 6 MV photon beam using millennium-120 multi leaf collimator (MLC) using the TrueBeam linear accelerator. IMRT and VMAT plans were performed with jaw tracking (JT) and with static jaw (SJ) techniques by keeping the same constraints and priorities for the target volumes and critical structures for a particular patient. For standardization, all the plans were normalized to the target mean of the planning target volume. All the plans were accepted with the criteria of bladder mean dose < 40 Gy and rectum mean dose < 40 Gy without compromising the target volumes. Target conformity, dose to the critical structures and low dose volumes were recorded and analyzed for IMRT and VMAT plans with and without jaw tracking for all the patients.

Results: The conformity index average of all patients followed by standard deviation (̄x± σ̄x) for JT-IMRT, SJ-IMRT, JT-VMAT and SJ-VMAT were 1.176 ± 0.139, 1.175 ± 0.139, 1.193 ± 0.220 and 1.228 ± 0.192 and homogeneity index were 0.089 ± 0.022, 0.085 ± 0.024, 0.102 ± 0.016 and 0.101 ± 0.016. In low dose volume J,T-IMRT shows a 5.4% (p-value < 0.001) overall reduction in volume receiving at least 5 Gy (V5) compared to SJ-IMRT, whereas 1.2% reduction was observed in V5 volume in JT-VMAT compared to SJ-VMAT. JT-IMRT showed mean reduction in rectum and bladder of 1.34% (p-value < 0.001) and 1.46% (p-value < 0.001) compared to SJ-IMRT, while only 0.30% and 0.03% reduction were observed between JT-VMAT and SJ-VMAT. JT-IMRT plans also showed considerable dose reduction to inthe testine, right femoral head, left femoral head and cauda compared to the SJ-IMRT plans.

Conclusion: Jaw tracking resulted in decreased dose to critical structures in IMRT and VMAT plans. But significant dose reductions were observed for critical structures in the JT-IMRT compared to SJ-IMRT technique. In JT-VMAT plans dose reduction to the critical structures were not significant compared to the JT-IMRT due to relatively lesser monitor units in the VMAT plans.

Open access
GTV volume estimation using different mode of computer tomography for lung tumors in stereotactic body radiation therapy

Abstract

Aim: To estimate the Gross Tumor Volume (GTV) using different modes (axial, helical, slow, KV-CBCT & 4D-CT) of computed tomography (CT) in pulmonary tumors.

Materials & Methods: We have retrospectively included ten previously treated case of carcinoma of primary lung or metastatic lung using Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) in this study. All the patients underwent 4 modes of CT scan Axial, Helical, Slow & 4D-CT using GE discovery 16 Slice PET-CT scanner and daily KV-CBCT for the daily treatment verification. For standardization, all the patients underwent different modes of scan using 2.5 mm slice thickness, 16 detectors rows and field of view of 400mm. Slow CT was performed using axial mode scan by increasing the CT tube rotation time (typically 3 – 4 sec.) as per the breathing period of the patients. 4D-CT scans were performed and the entire respiratory cycle was divided into ten phases. Maximum Intensity Projections (MIP), Minimum Intensity Projections (MinIP) and Average Intensity Projections (AvIP) were derived from the 10 phases. GTV volumes were delineated for all the patients in all the scanning modes (GTVAX - Axial, GTVHL - Helical, GTVSL – Slow, GTVMIP -4DCT and GTVCB – KV-CBCT) in the Eclipse treatment planning system version 11.0 (M/S Varian Medical System, USA). GTV volumes were measured, documented and compared with the different modes of CT scans.

Results: The mean ± standard deviation (range) for MIP, slow, axial, helical & CBCT were 36.5 ± 40.5 (2.29 – 87.0), 35.38 ± 39.52 (2.1 – 82), 31.95 ± 37.29 (1.32 – 66.9), 28.98 ± 33.36 (1.01 – 65.9) & 37.16 ± 42.23 (2.29 – 92). Overall underestimation of helical scan and axial scan compared to MIP is 21% and 12.5%. CBCT and slow CT volume has a good correlation with the MIP volume.

Conclusion: For SBRT in lung tumors better to avoid axial and helical scan for target delineation. MIP is a still a golden standard for the ITV delineation, but in the absence of 4DCT scanner, Slow CT and KV-CBCT data may be considered for ITV delineation with caution.

Open access
Dosimetric comparison of deep inspiration breath hold and free breathing technique in stereotactic body radiotherapy for localized lung tumor using Flattening Filter Free beam

Abstract

Aim: To compare the dosimetric advantage of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for localized lung tumor between deep inspiration breath hold technique and free breathing technique.

Materials and methods: We retrospectively included ten previously treated lung tumor patients in this dosimetric study. All the ten patients underwent CT simulation using 4D-CT free breathing (FB) and deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) techniques. Plans were created using three coplanar full modulated arc using 6 MV flattening filter free (FFF) bream with a dose rate of 1400 MU/min. Same dose constraints for the target and the critical structures for a particular patient were used during the plan optimization process in DIBH and FB datasets. We intend to deliver 50 Gy in 5 fractions for all the patients. For standardization, all the plans were normalized at target mean of the planning target volume (PTV). Doses to the critical structures and targets were recorded from the dose volume histogram for evaluation.

Results: The mean right and left lung volumes were inflated by 1.55 and 1.60 times in DIBH scans compared to the FB scans. The mean internal target volume (ITV) increased in the FB datasets by 1.45 times compared to the DIBH data sets. The mean dose followed by standard deviation (x̄ ± σx̄) of ipsilateral lung for DIBH-SBRT and FB-SBRT plans were 7.48 ± 3.57 (Gy) and 10.23 ± 4.58 (Gy) respectively, with a mean reduction of 36.84% in DIBH-SBRT plans. Ipsilateral lung were reduced to 36.84% in DIBH plans compared to FB plans.

Conclusion: Significant dose reduction in ipsilateral lung due to the lung inflation and target motion restriction in DIBH-SBRT plans were observed compare to FB-SBRT. DIBH-SBRT plans demonstrate superior dose reduction to the normal tissues and other critical structures.

Open access
Three dimensional conformal radiotherapy for synchronous bilateral breast irradiation using a mono iso-center technique

Abstract

Objective: The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the synchronous bilateral breast irradiation radiotherapy technique using a single isocenter. Materials and Methods: Six patients of synchronous bilateral breast were treated with single isocenter technique from February 2011 to June 2016. All the patients underwent a CT-simulation using appropriate positioning device. Target volumes and critical structures like heart, lung, esophagus, thyroid, etc., were delineated slice by slice in the CT data. An isocenter was placed above the sternum on the skin and both medial tangential and lateral tangential of the breast / chest wall were created using asymmetrical jaws to avoid the beam divergence through the lung and heart. The field weighting were adjusted manually to obtain a homogenous dose distribution. The planning objectives were to deliver uniform doses around the target and keep the doses to the organ at risk within the permissible limit. The beam energy of 6 MV or combination of 6 MV and 15 MV photons were used in the tangential fields according to the tangential separation. Boluses were used for all the mastectomy patients to increase the doses on the chest wall. In addition to that enhanced dynamic wedge and field in field technique were also used to obtain a homogenous distribution around the target volume and reduce the hot spots. The isocenter was just kept on the skin, such that the beam junctions will be overlapped only on the air just above the sternum. Acute toxicity during the treatment and late toxicity were recorded during the patient’s follow-up. Results: During the radiotherapy treatment follow-up there were no acute skin reactions in the field junctions, but one patient had grade 1 esophagitis and two patients had grade 2 skin reactions in the chest wall. With a median follow-up of 38.5 months (range: 8 - 49 months), no patients had a local recurrence, but one patients with triple negative disease had a distant metastases in brain and died after 28 months. Conclusions: We were able to successfully treat the synchronous bilateral breast using single isocenter radiotherapy while keeping the lung and heart doses within the acceptable dose limits. During the treatment follow-up there were no symptoms of acute skin reactions in the field junction.

Open access