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Karolina Wójcicka and Piotr Wójcicki

Epidemiology of Lip, Alveolar Process and Palate Clefts - Comparison of Own Studies with Data from Other Centres

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Karolina Wójcicka and Kazimierz Kobus

Etiopathogenesis of Lip, Alveolar Process and Palate Clefts

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Piotr Wójcicki and Karolina Wójcicka

Vascular tumours and malformations are revealed at birth and do not subside.

The aim of the study was to present the principles and outcomes of treatment of patients with arteriovenous malformations treated at the Clinic of Plastic Surgery in Polanica Zdrój in the years 2009- 2010.

Only one patient, who had not been treated previously, had the lesion on the cheek removed subtotally and the defect was closed by means of local repair. In the remaining patients, with primary lesions located in the auricle, scalp, and cheeks, the indications for operation included recurrent infections, ulcerations, and first of all, massive, life-threatening haemorrhages.

All the patients, treated for many years in other centres, had underwent numerous resection procedures, vessel ligations, embolizations and obliterations. The patients were followed up after the surgery every 6 months.

The therapy aim was achieved in all the patients. Vascular tumours were removed totally or subtotally, the lost structures were reconstructed and permanent healing of the wound was achieved. None of the patients developed recurrence of the disease, infection, or bleeding.

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Karolina Wójcicka, Kazimierz Kobus and Piotr Wójcicki

Epidemiology of Lip, Alveolar Process and Palate Clefts in the Material of Hospital and Clinic of Plastic Surgery in Polanica Zdrój

The aim of the study was to determine the incidence rate of individual types of clefts, association with other congenital defects and family incidence of the disease as well as evaluation of the condition of neonates born with cleft.

Material and methods. Retrospective studies were performed in 2500 patients with cleft lip and palate treated at the Hospital and Clinic of Plastic Surgery in the years 1979-2003. There were examined 1650 patients with cleft lip with/without palate (CL±P) and 850 patients with isolated cleft palate (CP). In the group of 1650 cleft lip and palate subjects there were 775 patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP), 250 patients with complete bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP) and 625 patients with cleft lip (CL).

Results. 1. The incidence rate of CLP: CL: CP was approximately as 5: 3: 4. Unilateral clefts were 3 times as common as bilateral clefts and they occurred twice more often on the left side. 2. CLP occurred predominantly in males- M:F ratio = 1.8 : 1; in CL- M:F = 1.3 : 1 while reverse proportions were observed in CP patients, F:M = 1.38 : 1.3. A relationship was found between the condition of the neonate as evaluated by Apgar score and the body mass and coexistence of a specific cleft. The lowest Apgar score and the lowest birth weight was observed in neonates with BCLP, while neonates with CL had the highest values. 4. There is a proportional relationship between the severity of cleft and the incidence of the defect in first degree relatives. 5. 11% of cleft patients also develop other congenital deformities, including defect syndromes, which account for 24% of all associated defects.

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Karolina Wojcicka


Each year assets of the banking sector in Poland increase and thereby its significance in the real economy increases as well. At the same time, the ongoing consolidation process and changes in the ownership structure cause the Polish banking sector to play a substantial role not only on the local financial market, but on the European market as well and Polish banks are becoming more and more significant entities in their international banking groups (both in Europe and worldwide). However, the perspective of concentration increase and restriction of the Polish banking sector to a few operating banks (dominated by entities with foreign capital) is a source of distress in the context of its soundness - and due to its significance in the Polish economy - to the whole financial sector and real economy. The main goal of this article is to analyse the changes of concentration in the banking sector in Poland, including the ownership concentration, while attempting to determine its soundness (using the financial stability ratios method). The purpose of the study is also to prove a thesis that limited concentration with diversification of the ownership structure and its limited concentration favours thesoundness of a banking system. The study was carried out on the basis of an analysis of literature (both Polish and English) and comparative analysis (of the concentration of the Polish banking sector against other European countries). Qualitative analysis was complemented with quantitative research, based on analysis of statistical data.

Open access

Mykola Tutchenko, Eduard Svitlychnyi, Karolina Wojcicka and Oleksandr Shavlovskyi


This article presents the diagnostics and laparoscopic management of appendicular abscess of 66 y.o. woman operated 3 weeks after the disease onset. The patient underwent surgery successfully. Purulent septic post-operative complications were not demonstrated. That confirms the benefits of minimally invasive surgery