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  • Author: Karolina Nowak x
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Introduction. Results presented in this article are part of an international project called Project of physical activity stimulation in a family (PPASF) held jointly with the Klaipėda University and LASE in Riga. We decided to check whether participation of children in preschool age in active classes in nursery school may be an impetus to change behavior in terms of physical activity of a family. For this purpose, a model was developed that included physical activity program conducted in the nursery school, with homework for the children to do together with their parents at home. The aim of the study was to examine the extent to which a child can persuade the parents to a common physical activity and whether sport and recreation for children with homework are a successful proposal to increase motor activity of the family. Material and methods. A diagnostic survey method was applied in the research, using a questionnaire technique. The survey questionnaire covered 38 families including 30 mothers and 8 fathers. Results and conclusions. Research has shown that children can become facilitators of physical activity in the family. The proposed model classes for children proved to be an accurate proposal, which is worth to implement the practice of teaching.


The study aimed at presenting the most frequent male gonadal tumours in dogs, their clinical and histopathological aspects, at outlining aetiopathogenesis and differential diagnosis of the tumours. As examples of the most frequently manifested testicular tumours, three clinical cases were presented, involving tumour of interstitial (Leydig) cells, tumour of Sertoli cells, and seminoma. Respective clinical diagnosis employed USG, X-ray patterns, and morphological and biochemical tests. The surgically sampled material was stained with H+E and an attempt was made to establish expression of E-cadherin, calretinin, and Ki-67. It was shown that histopathological diagnosis of testicular tumours in dogs is frequently very difficult and complex and requires multidirectional studies.


Introduction: Pacemaker implantation is the only effective symptomatic treatment for life-threatening bradyarrhythmias. Major complications observed after implantation of cardiac pacemakers include lead dislocation, loss of pulse generator function, and inadequate stimulation. The aim of this retrospective single-centre study was to analyse the indications for pacemaker implantation and the incidence and types of complications associated with this procedure in dogs treated for symptomatic bradyarrhythmia.

Material and Methods: The retrospective analysis included 31 dogs with symptomatic bradyarrhythmia, implanted with permanent cardiac pacemakers in 1992–2017. The list of analysed variables included patient age, breed, sex, indication for pacemaker implantation, comorbidities, and the incidence of procedure-related complications along with the type thereof.

Results: The most common indication for pacemaker implantation was 3rd degree AVB, followed by SSS, advanced 2nd degree AVB, and PAS. Pacemaker implantation was associated with a 35% overall complication rate and 6.45% periprocedural mortality. There were no significant differences in terms of procedure-related complications with regard to age, sex, breed, indications for pacemaker implantation, or comorbidities.

Conclusions: Cardiac pacing is the only effective treatment of symptomatic bradycardia, but as an invasive procedure, may pose a risk of various complications, including death.