Yerba mate is a source of biologically active substances. The aim was to determine whether the place of origin of Yerba and the brewing method have any influence on the levels of Ca, Mg and Fe and antioxidant activity of infusions. Samples were steeped in cold water (25°C) and hot water (three consecutive infusions with 85°C water). Infusions had a high antioxidant activity and high Mg level. The levels of elements and the antioxidant activity were influenced by the brewing method. There were no significant differences in the examined parameters depending on the country of origin. The results on the levels of elements and the antioxidant activity indicate that the most efficient brewing method was infusion in hot water. The highest levels of elements were found in first infusions, with the highest antioxidant activity in the third infusions.
In this work the studies on the antioxidative properties of extracts from various morphotic parts of the ground elder (leaves, rhizomes, seeds and flowers) were presented. Moreover, the effect of different extraction methods (ultrasonic assisted extractions, extraction in a Soxhlet apparatus, extraction at the boiling point of the solvent used), solvent and its amount, and extraction time on the antioxidative properties of the obtained extracts were tested. The studies showed that all parts of ground elder can show radical scavenging activity, and it depends mainly on the method of extraction and extraction time. But the most beneficial is ultrasonic assisted extraction which used lower amount of solvent (ethanol). In case of all parts of the ground elder (leaves, rhizomes, seeds and flowers) it allows to obtain very high values of the antioxidant capacity (above 90%) for very short extraction time amounted to 20–40 minutes.
The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of 6 week Mediterranean diet or 30% calorie restriction on the fatty acid profile and eicosanoids (hydroxyoctadecadienoi acids and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids) concentration. Furthermore, basic biochemical variables such as insulin, glucose, HOMA-IR, and a lipid profile were estimated. The study enrolled 94 Caucasian former athletes aged 20-42, with body height of 179 ± 16.00 cm and body mass of 89.26 ± 13.25 kg who had not been active for at least 5 years. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of the three intervention groups: CR group – the 30% calorie restriction (n = 32), MD group - the Mediterranean diet (n = 34), and C group - a control group (n = 28). The pattern of nutrition was analysed before and after the experiment using the 72 h food diaries. In order to evaluate the effect of diet intervention, the following variables were measured: anthropometrics, basic biochemical variables (insulin, fasting glucose, HOMA-IR, lipid profile), fatty acids and their blood derivatives profiles. The CR group showed significantly lower levels of several biochemical variables, i.e., BMI, total cholesterol LDL, TG, total lipids, insulin and HOMA – IR (p < 0.05). Subjects consuming the MD diet significantly decreased their BMI and reduced the level of total lipids (p < 0.05). We did not find any significant changes in the C group. The analysis of the fatty acid profile revealed that the CR group had a significantly decreased EPA level (p < 0.05). The MD group showed a significantly increased level of the DHA (p < 0.05) and improvement in the omega - 3 index (p < 0.05). Subjects following the MD also showed significantly lower concentrations of 15 - hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE). We did not observe any significant differences between the CR and C groups. Within short time, calorie restriction helps to improve lipid variables and insulin resistance. The MD diet seems to be more advantageous in the decrease of inflammation, but does not improve basic biochemical variables. We can conclude that calorie restriction can be a good choice for former athletes, although EPA and DHA supplementation is needed.