The aim of the study was to investigate S100β protein in astrocytes of CA1 and CA3 areas of the hippocampus proper and the dentate gyrus with the hilus yet undefined in mature males of chinchilla. The presence of S100β was determined using indirect immunohistochemical peroxidase-antiperoxidase method with specific monoclonal antibody against this protein. Most of the S100β-positive cells were detected in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus and in the middle part of the hilus. In CA3 area, it was found that the most numerous cells with S100β are in stratum radiatum. In CA1 area, there were single astrocytes expressing this protein. This data demonstrates species differences and a large quantity of S100β immunoreactive cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus of chinchilla, which may be associated with structural reorganisation of the hippocampus and with neurogenesis, learning, and memorising process dependent on the hippocampus.
Ten adult male chinchillas were used. The localisation of calbindin D28k (CB) was examined with the use of two types of reactions: immunocytochemical peroxidase-antiperoxidase and immunofluorescence staining with a specific monoclonal antibody against CB. Immunocytochemical examination demonstrated the presence of CB-positive neurons in the following layers of all parts the parahippocampal gyrus (PG): marginal, external cellular, middle cellular, and internal cellular, i.e. in entorhinal area, parasubiculum, and presubiculum. Immunofluorescence staining revealed the presence of CB in both Hu C/Dimmunoreactive (IR) neurons and nervous fibers of the PG. CB-IR neuronal cell bodies were moderately numerous (ca. 10% of Hu C/D-IR neurons) and clearly distinguished from the background. Each layer of the brain area consisted of two types of neurons: pyramidal and multiform. Among the second type of neurons, four kinds of morphologically different neuronal subclasses were observed: multipolar, bipolar, round, and Cajal-Retzius cells. It is concluded that the expression of CB in the PG of the chinchilla is species specific and limited to several subclasses of neurons
The aim of the study was to determine the mechanical and geometric properties as well as bone tissue density of long bones in primiparous and multiparous dams of minks supplemented with β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB) and/or 2-oxoketoglutarate (2-Ox) during gestation. Powdered 2-Ox was given at the daily dosage of 0.4 g/kg b.w. separately or simultaneously with HMB, which was administered at the daily dosage of 0.02 g/kg b.w. The study demonstrates for the first time that administration of 2-Ox and/or HMB to dams markedly influences bone tissue density and the mechanical and geometrical properties of mother`s bones in minks. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the supplementation was more effective in the thoracic limb, which was comprehensively used in contrast to the pelvic limb. The mechanical parameters and bone tissue density significantly increased in the humerus in multiparous minks. Only such diet may provide satisfactory production results in the animals. Nutritional deficiencies occurring during pregnancies may trigger body`s own reserves to cover the bone mass increase in developing foetuses and support milk production. This can prevent regeneration of dams’ organisms, which negatively affects their reproductive performance. 2-Ox or HMB may be regarded as a protective metabolite when administered orally to minks, counteracting the negative influences of pregnancy and lactation periods on bones condition. Both simultaneous treatment with 2-Ox and HMB and their separate administration were equally effective.