Karol Gryko, Sławomir Bodasiński, Anna Bodasińska and Janusz Zieliński
Introduction. The analysis of players’ performance with respect to technical-tactical actions is becoming a key factor influencing the focus of training programmes and the contents of training units. It also provides important information which can be used to improve players’ efficiency during the game. The aim of the current study was to analyse the efficiency of technicaltactical offensive actions in positional attack as well as defensive actions performed by handball players participating in two consecutive World Men’s Handball Championships, held in Spain in 2013 and in Qatar in 2015. Material and methods. The material subjected to analysis was data describing the technical-tactical actions performed during the World Championships in Spain in 2013 and in Qatar in 2015. We analysed offensive and defensive actions, including with regard to the continent the teams represented. We performed an analysis of the documents available on the IHF website. The significance of the differences found was verified using analysis of variance (ANOVA and MANOVA). Results. The study found a significantly lower number of offensive actions in positional attack (−7.5%) and turnovers (−26.4%), higher overall efficiency (+7.2%), as well as higher efficiency of 6-m shots (+9.5%), wing shots (+7.3%), and breakthrough shots (+11.4%) at the World Championship in Qatar compared to tournament in Spain. When it comes to defensive actions, there was a significantly higher number of 2-minute suspensions (+27.5%), with a simultaneous significant reduction in the number of steals (−55.7%) and shots defended (−13.3%). Conclusions. During a two-year cycle, there was a change in the concept of playing in positional attack. In 2015, there was a significantly greater number of actions leading to a shot in the region of the opponent’s goal area as well as a higher level of activity and more aggressive play on the part of defensive players. In addition, European teams had gained an advantage over teams from other continents in terms of the efficiency of the technical-tactical actions undertaken.
Karol Gryko, Bogusław Słupczyński and Anna Kopiczko
Introduction. Each change in the rules of a sport affects the way it is performed. Therefore, changes in regulations require that new training models be developed. The aim of the study was to determine whether FIBA’s introduction of new regulations in the 2010/2011 season pertaining to the dimensions of certain parts of the playing area, which changed the conditions under which the game was played, impacted the offensive actions of the top three teams in the Polish Basketball League. Material and methods. The study analysed qualitative data describing the offences (n = 16,694) performed during 200 matches of the Polish Basketball League, that is the highest-level men’s professional basketball league in Poland, during two periods: the 2009/2010 season (110 matches; n = 9,343 offences), before the regulations were modified, and the 2010/2011 season (90 matches; n = 7,351 offences), after they were changed. The research involved the players of three teams who received the gold, silver, and bronze medals in the final standings of the Polish National Championship in the 2009/2010 season. Results. The study found a statistically significant (p < 0.001) decrease in the overall number of tactical offensive actions of 3.84% and a significant (p < 0.05) 5% decrease in the mean number of points scored. A significant (p < 0.05) decrease in half-court offences, amounting to almost 2% was also observed. This offensive system was characterised by a minor shift toward individual offences with the back to the basket and pick-and-roll offences; these changes, however, did not cause an increase in the level of effectiveness. Conclusions. The direction of the changes observed have been determined, which consisted in a reduction in the overall number of offensive actions and a shift in the place where they were completed, from the three-point area in particular, to the two-point area.
The bone tissue is metabolically active. Throughout the entire life, it undergoes changes in the form of bone resorption processes which are successive, with the participation of the resorbing cells and bone formation processes. The aim of the study was to evaluate mineral density and bone mass tissue and the lipid profile, BMI, total body fat in young females and males. The study involved 100 people (50 females and 50 males) studying in Warsaw at the age of 23,2 ± 4,0 years. The densitometry method of the forearm was used for the assessment of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mass (BMC). The method of bioelectrical impedance was used for the assessment of body components. Basic body dimensions and indicators were assessed using anthropometric measurements. Body height, body mass and the needs for the densitometry study of the forearm were measured. The total cholesterol concentration was determined in the blood serum using diagnostic kits, as well as high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and triglycerides. The concentration of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) was calculated. While in men the occurrence of a significant, positive correlation was stated between the concentration of the HDL cholesterol fraction and the mineral density and T-score index in the ultra-distal point, the analysis of the compounds of mineral density (BMD), bone mass (BMC) of the forearm, T-score index with somatic features in women showed a significant, positive relation between the body weight and the bone mass mineral density and T-score indicator in the proximal point. Also, a significant weak, positive correlation was observed between the BMI, the mineral density and T-score indicator in the proximal point. In men, the occurrence of significant, positive correlations was stated between the body weight and BMC, BMD, T-score indicator in the proximal point of the forearm bone and ultra-distal point. Similar relations were observed between the BMI, mineral density, T-score and bone mass in the proximal point and in the ultra-distal point. Based on several noted weak, positive correlations between the lipid profile and BMD, the results of this study of women and men cannot unequivocally indicate the dependence of the bone tissue state on the lipid level in the blood serum of young women and men. Therefore, the issues raised require further investigation.
Karol Gryko, Petr Stastny, Anna Kopiczko, Kazimierz Mikołajec, Ondrej Pecha and Krzysztof Perkowski
Anthropometric diagnoses predict the most appropriate on‐court position for a certain player and are important in the long‐term planning of basketball training programs. This study provides anthropometric characteristics and body composition profiles of Polish youth national team players (U‐14, U‐15, U‐16 and U‐18). The aim of this research was to determine the somatic characteristics of basketball players regarding particular on‐court positions. The sample population consisted of 109 elite basketball players, who played in national teams in four age categories: U‐14, U‐16, U‐18 U‐20. An analysis of the obtained results revealed differences between the younger (U‐14, U‐15 and U‐16) and older groups (U‐18 and U‐20) in terms of length, width and circumference measurements and body mass (3.6–9.3%), as well as subcutaneous fat measured by the skinfold thickness method (14.3–33.7%). ANCOVA with maturity offset as the covariate variable showed differences in body height (p < 0.05, R2 = 0.74) and the arm span (p < 0.05, R2 = 0.87) between each playing position; the somatic measurements were greater for centers than for forwards and guards, and the measurements were greater for forwards than for guards. The somatic feature measurements also increased linearly with age. We can conclude that the arm span and body height are two major somatic factors that can predict center and guard playing positions for national team basketball players in all age categories from U‐14 to U‐20.
Bartosz Molik, Andrzej Kosmol, Natalia Morgulec-Adamowicz, Judit Lencse-Mucha, Anna Mróz, Karol Gryko and Jolanta Marszałek
In wheelchair sports, aerobic performance is commonly assessed with the use of an arm crank ergometer (ACE), a wheelchair ergometer (WCE) or a wheelchair treadmill (WCT). There are different protocols to identify peak oxygen uptake in wheelchair sports; however, only a few protocols have been applied to evaluate these conditions in wheelchair basketball players. The purpose of this study was to compare physiological responses during maximal exercise testing with the use of ACE and WCT in wheelchair basketball players. Twelve elite male wheelchair basketball players participated in this study. The research was performed during a training camp of the Polish National Wheelchair Basketball Team. The study participants were divided into two functional categories: A (players with class 1.0 - 2.5) and B (players with class 3.0 - 4.5). Two main maximal exercise tests, i.e. wheelchair treadmill stress test (WCT test) and arm crank ergometer stress test (ACE test) were used to evaluate aerobic performance of the players. There were no statistically significant differences in aerobic tests between the players from both groups. The comparison of results achieved in two aerobic tests performed on WCT and ACE did not reveal any significant differences between the analyzed variables (peak heart rate (HRpeak), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), minute ventilation (VE), anaerobic threshold (AT), lactate concentration (LApeak), and a drop in lactate concentration (%LA)). Strong correlations between results achieved in WCT and ACE tests were found for VO2peak, VE and LApeak. The main conclusion of the study is that both WCT and ACE tests may be useful when determining aerobic capacity of wheelchair basketball players. Moreover, both protocols can be used by athletes regardless of their functional capabilities and types of impairment.