The selected SCS-CN method is used worldwide and adapted to the conditions of Slovakia. GIS environment provides an opportunity to simulate changes in land use, and then to calculate the total volume of water from the river and peak water flow in the river bed of the stream. The simulation was done for two rainfall events, 72 mm and 42.6 mm, which were measured in precipitation station in Jelenec (a village situated next to the area of interest). The calculation was made for 4 possible scenarios - current land use, forest, arable land and grassland and pasture. Culmination discharge and time of outflow from rainfall 72 mm for current land use were calculated using the NRCS method. The calculation of water runoff volume showed that similar values were measured for the rainfall of 72 mm and rainfall 42.6 mm in case of AMC-III. The highest values of water runoff volume were marked in the case of arable land in all calculations, the lowest one for forest. Comparison of designed stream cross section and calculated culmination discharge allowed us to determine the point of outflow from the river bed of the Drevenica stream.
The aim of this paper is to assess the changes in the landscape structure of the Žitný Ostrov territory and in the woody species of the non-forest woody vegetation (NFWV) over the past 120 years. Within the assessed periods of 1892, 1949, 1969 and 2015, the shares of arable land increased by 17% while the ratio of the built-up areas with gardens increased by 3.7%. At the same time, natural habitats, grassland, waterlogged meadows and wetlands decreased by 26%. These changes, concerning small mosaic plots as well as large cultural blocks, were caused by the intensification of agriculture after 1948. Ecological stability and biodiversity of these areas has decreased. Thereafter 60 windbreaks were planted from 1951–1952 in an area of 30 ha. In total, 37 woody species were planted, of which 22 were alien species. After 25 years (in 1976), 19 of the same windbreaks were surveyed, observing 16 native and 12 alien woody species. During these periods, many rare alien and coniferous species died. In 2015, 13 windbreaks with 39 woody species were identified, both in the tree and the shrubby layer. The downside is that four of the long-time surviving species are invasive trees.
The woody plant species composition has been evaluated in three cadastral territories of southwestern Slovakia, together in 77 habitats of non-forest woody vegetation (NFWV). A total of 43 tree species have been identified; 8 of them were alien and 5 species were cultural fruit trees. In total 20 shrub species were identified, out of which 3 were alien. Three woody species are classified as invasive according to the law in Slovakia: Acer negundo L., Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle, and Lycium barbarum L. They occurred only in 2, maximum in 4 of the evaluated habitats. The most occurring alien tree species Robinia pseudoacacia L. was generally identified in 58 habitats and in 48 habitats, with an incidence over 40% and dominance index of 70.6. The second most occurring alien tree Populus × canadensis had a dominance index of 8.3. The dominant native trees in NFWV were Acer campestre L., Fraxinus excelsior L., Quercus robur L., Salix fragilis L. with the dominance index of 1–5 only.
Snow production results in high volume of snow that is remaining on the low-elevation ski pistes after snowmelt of natural snow on the off-piste sites. The aim of this study was to identify snow/ice depth, snow density, and snow water equivalent of remaining ski piste snowpack to calculate and to compare snow ablation water volume with potential infiltration on the ski piste area at South-Central Slovak ski center Košútka (Inner Western Carpathians; temperate zone). Snow ablation water volume was calculated from manual snow depth and density measurements, which were performed at the end of five winter seasons 2010–2011 to 2015–2016, except for season 2013–2014. The laser diffraction analyzes were carried out to identify soil grain size and subsequently the hydraulic conductivity of soil to calculate the infiltration. The average rate of water movement through soil was seven times as high as five seasons’ average ablation rate of ski piste snowpack; nevertheless, the ski piste area was potentially able to infiltrate only 47% of snow ablation water volume on average. Limitation for infiltration was frozen soil and ice layers below the ski piste snowpack and low snow-free area at the beginning of the studied ablation period.
This article describes the process of land consolidations in Slovakia. Fundamental goals of land consolidation are defined in the paper. Land ownership is briefly described with emphasis on historical development. Functional reorganisation of the territory is described in detail. The authors state that this objective is in land consolidation designs, often neglected and landscaping is shifted into the background. Preference is given to activities associated with ownership as evidenced by the common tendency to award contracts for simple land consolidation. The numbers of awarded contracts for comprehensive and simple landscape consolidations from 1990 to the present were evaluated. Reasons for the observed stagnation of comprehensive land consolidation projects have been mentioned. Causes have been found and the problem was displayed from various positions. Finally, possible solutions have been found in order to stimulate discussion on the topic: why there is stagnation in designing of land consolidations in Slovakia.