The humankind is ageing rapidly, and as a result, there is an increasing need for old people’s homes. The nursing homes face different problems in financing and recruiting the labour force and management. Lack of resources causes the situation, when managers have to find possibilities to accomplish services and to provide quality care with the limited funds. This situation has an additional impact on the nursing professionals, who have to deal with many psychosocial risk factors in their work. The aim of the paper is to explore the work-related psychosocial risk factors and their relationships with mental health problems (MHPs) amongst care workers. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken amongst the care workers in nine Estonian nursing homes. Psychosocial work factors and MHPs (stress, somatic symptoms, depressive symptoms, burnout, cognitive symptoms, and sleep disorders) were analysed using the second version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II). Descriptive statistics and Pearson’s r correlation were used to analyse the data. The analysis was based on 340 care worker surveys. The highest mean scores for the studied work-related psychosocial factors were recorded for the quantitative demands, influence, rewards, role conflicts, trust, insecurity and work-family balance. Low mean scores were recorded for the meaning of work, role clarity, social relationships at work. The lowest score was followed by burnout and the highest - by cognitive symptoms.
Occupational risk prevention can be managed in several ways. Voluntary safety management standard OHSAS 18001 is a tool, which is considered to give contribution in effective risk management in the manufacturing industry. The current paper examines the benefits of OHSAS 18001 based on the statistical analysis. MISHA method is used for safety audit in 16 Estonian enterprises. The results demonstrate the objectives why companies implement or are willing to implement OHSAS 18001, bring out differences in safety activities for 3 types of companies and determine correlations among different safety activity areas. The information is valuable for enterprises that are willing to improve their safety activities via a voluntary safety management system.
Õnnela Paas, Karin Reinhold, Jelena Hartšenko and Piia Tint
The safety management system in 16 Estonian manufacturing companies (eight certified and eight noncertified in OHSAS (occupational health and safety management systems standard) 18001; four of the last corporated to the foreign firms) were investigated using the MISHA method. The results showed that if the advanced safety methods (like proposed by OHSAS 18001) are implemented by the initiative of the employers of the locally-owned Estonian SMEs, the level in safety performance, comparable with OHSAS certified companies could be achieved. The regression analysis showed strong correlation between the personnel management, safety activities in practice, communication, physical work environment, psychological working conditions, hazards analysis procedures and the safety level, R2= 0.7312-0.9596; medium correlation between the participation, personnel safety training, occupational accidents and illnesses, social work environment and the safety level (R2=0.3133-0.6044). Low correlation (R2= 0.2139) was recorded between the safety policy and the safety level and there was no correlation between the work ability of the employees and the safety level. The methods to improve the locally-owned enterprises’ safety level up to the corporated and OHSAS 18001 certified level are proposed. The cost of suitable safety measures is calculated. The MISHA method improvement possibilities for the use in the SMEs (small and medium size companies) are presented.
Õnnela Paas, Virve Siirak, Jelena Hartšenko, Karin Reinhold and Piia Tint
The safety management system has been analysed in 16 Estonian enterprises using the MISHA method (Method for Industrial Safety and Health Activity Assessment). The factor analysis (principal component analysis and varimax with Kaiser analysis) has been implemented for the interpretation of the results on safety performance at the enterprises implementing OHSAS 18001 and the ones that do not implement OHSAS 18001. The division of the safety areas into four parts for a better understanding of the safety level and its improvement possibilities has been proven through the statistical analysis. The connections between the questions aimed to clarify the safety level and performance at the enterprises have been set based on the statistics. New learning package “training through the questionnaires” has been worked out in the current paper for the top and middle-level managers to improve their safety knowledge, where the MISHA questionnaire has been taken as the basis.