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  • Author: Karel Janečka x
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Abstract

The 3D geoinformation is becoming important for cities and their policies. The cities are therefore exploring the possibilities of 3D virtual city models for more efficient decision making. To maximize the economic benefit of such data, the cities can provide their 3D geospatial data for further usage, and so, new applications can be created. The paper defines a way how the freely available 3D geospatial data of Prague can be transformed from the proprietary data format into the open data model. The 3D geospatial data about the buildings, bridges and digital terrain model were transformed from the 3D shapefile into the CityGML. This is an application independent information model and exchange format. This will allow for the wider use of the 3D city model by different groups of users. The generated CityGML files were further imported into the spatial database with appropriate database CityGML-based scheme. It enables more efficient management and querying of CityGML data. To enable the wider audience to explore the 3D city model, the visualization in the web environment was also explored. The paper also presents the way how the attributes from the external data sources can be connected to the 3D objects in the web environment.

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to give an overview of selected ongoing ISO standardization activities in the domain of geographic information dealing with BIM/GIS and 3D cadastre. The presented international standards have also a close relation to the activities (e.g. 3D spatial planning) from which the smart cities could benefit. In particular, in this paper the ISO 19152 Geographic information – Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) standard and ISO 19166 Geographic information – BIM to GIS conceptual mapping (B2GM) standard (still under development) are emphasized. Both mentioned standards are also strongly interrelated with each other. The ISO 19152 standard supports the smart registration of real estates by providing a conceptual schema incorporating 3D parcels, i.e. the 3D cadastre. 3D cadastre can provide the accurate, authoritative and unambiguous foundation for understanding the urban form. The second version of the ISO 19152 is also going to be extended to manage the spatial planning information. This enables 3D spatial planning in connection with the legal information, which is all together of big importance for building the smart cities. Furthermore, the ISO 19166 standard is going to provide a conceptual framework for transformation of BIM into GIS (at various level of details) and vice versa. This enables a wider use of existing detailed and semantically rich 3D digital BIM data in building of the 3D cadastre and smart cities GIS projects.

Highlights for public administration, management and planning:

• There are currently two running projects within International Organization for Standardization (ISO) from which the smart city should benefit – the international standard ISO 19166 BIM2GIS and ISO TR 23262 GIS (geospatial) / BIM interoperability.

• There is an existing international standard ISO 19152 Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) supporting the creation of the 3D cadastre.

• The second version of the international standard ISO 19152, which is now under development, will bring a support for spatial planning and also the examples of technical encodings of LADM in BIM/IFC and CityGML.