Since the traditional computer vision ranging algorithm is imperfect in pertinence and precision, night time monocular vision pedestrian ranging method is proposed for vehicular infrared night vision goggles. Firstly, the method calibrated the internal and external parameters of infrared night-vision goggles, then, it corrected distortion of collected Vehicular Infrared Night Vision Image, and finally it ranged objective pedestrians by using night time monocular vision pedestrian ranging algorithm. The experimental results show that this method has the characteristics of pertinence, high precision and good real-time, and has good practicability.
The distribution of microtubular cytoskeletons and organelle nucleoids during microsporogenesis in Populus simonii Carr. x P. nigra L. ‘Tongliao’ was studied by indirect immunofluorescence and 4’,6-diamidino-2- phenylindole (DAPI) staining. Our purpose was to reveal the relationship between changes in microtubule and chromosome behavior and cytokinesis and to explain the mechanism of 2n pollen production. We observed stable frequencies of 2n pollen production, ranging from 1.56% to 2.29%, between 2006 and 2008. Moreover, conjoined pollen grains were also observed. Meiotic abnormalities, including univalents, lagging chromosomes and micronuclei, were observed during microsporogenesis. Triads and dyads were also detected in meiotic products. Parallel spindles in metaphase II were unable to fuse, owing to the existence of an organelle band. Regularly, in telophase II, primary phragmoplasts were organized between sister nuclei, and secondary phragmoplasts formed between non-sister nuclei. Cell plates were initiated by centrifugal expansion of phragmoplasts and cytoplasmic infurrowing started at the junctions between the microsporocyte wall and the expanded phragmoplasts. However, a secondary phragmoplast was absent in some microsporocytes. These observations suggest that the occurrence of 2n pollen may result from the partial failure of cytokinesis caused by the absence of secondary phragmoplasts in this hybrid.
Effects of DI-(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate on Rat Ovarian Function
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) on estrous cycle, sex hormone levels and ovary histological features. A total of 80 female SD rats were randomly divided into 8 groups (n=10 per group): short-course control group, short-course low-dose group, short-course medium-dose group, and short-course high-dose group, long-course control group, long-course low-dose group, long-course medium-dose group and long-course high-dose group. Intragastrical DEHP was administrated at 1000 mg/kg/d (low dose), 2000 mg/kg/d (medium dose) and 3000 mg/kg/d (high dose) independently for 14 days (short course) or 28 days (long course). Rats in control groups were untreated. Vaginal smearing was used to detect the estrous cycle and rats were weighed at every Monday and Thursday to evaluate the growth status. At the end of study, rats were sacrificed and bilateral ovaries were obtained for histological examination. In addition, ELISA determined levels of serum progesterone, estradiol, testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. DEHP treatment limited body weight gain (p<0.05), prolonged the estrous cycle (p<0.05), decreased the ovarian mass index (p<0.05) and ovarian weight. No evident degeneration, necrosis or other pathological features were found in the ovaries. The testosterone levels were decreased by DEHP treatment in a dose dependent manner. DEHP treatment could increase serum testosterone level, inhibit ovulation and prolong the estrous cycle of rats, exerting reproductive toxicity in a dose dependent manner. We speculate DEHP can affect the endocrine regulatory function of the ovary and limit the body weight gain, resulting in chronic toxicity.
A high-acidity HUSY zeolite with mesoporous structure was prepared by alumination with a dilute aqueous NaAlO2 solution and characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption, IR framework vibration and 29Si MAS NMR methods. The results indicated the extra-framework aluminum was reinserted into the tetrahedral framework through isomorphic substitution of framework Si (0Al) sites by Al ions, whereas the crystal and micropore structure were unaltered. FTIR spectra of hydroxyl vibrations and pyridine adsorbed on realuminated zeolites showed that the number of Brønsted acid sites and strong Lewis acid sites increased whereas weak Lewis acid sites decreased twice. The mesoporous structure composed of inter-and intra-crystalline pores in the aluminated HUSY increased the external surface area of the zeolite, improving accessibility of molecules to the active sites and enhancing its catalytic ability. The realuminated HUSY zeolite supported with Ru catalyst exhibited a higher catalytic activity for benzene hydrogenation than the parent HUSY zeolite; the reaction rate in comparison to the mesozeolite increased by 5.5 times.
Polyploid breeding has the potential to increase the economic secondary metabolites of Eucommia ulmoides. However, pollination with induced ploidy-mixed pollen has failed to produce polyploids (GAO, 2006). In this investigation, the morphological characterization and in vitro germination of heat-induced ploidy-mixed pollen of E. ulmoides were analysed to determine why there is no polyploid production. Heat-treated pollen grains were easily distinguished as large and small according to their length. The large pollen grains were significantly longer than both untreated and heat-treated small samples, suggesting that they were probably 2n pollen. Rather than the three germinal pores in small pollen, the large grains typically had four pores and, in some cases, shallow furrows, which might affect their germination. Although the maximal germination rates of the treated small and large pollen were not significantly different, the large pollen germinated tardily during the early stages of incubation. The small pollen maintained its growth during the incubation, but the tube growth of large pollen almost stopped after 24 h incubation. Both vegetative and generative nuclei in the large pollen moved into tubes later than in small pollen and the frequency of mitosis in generative nuclei of large pollen was low. Therefore, the tardy germination, poor tube growth, and weak activity of both vegetative and generative nuclei probably caused the poor competition of large pollen in certation. Finally, techniques to increase the competition of highploidy pollen and the prospect of 2n female gamete induction in the polyploid breeding program of E. ulmoides are discussed.
Triploid breeding plays an important role in cultivar improvement in the genus Populus L. A novel approach for triploid production with colchicine during embryo sac development was reported recently by Wang et al. (2010). In the present investigation, female catkins of Populus pseudo-simonii × P. nigra ‘Zheyin3#’ during embryo sac development were exposed to high temperature to assess the effectiveness of high temperature for induction of triploid production. In the progeny, 45 triploids were determined by both flow cytometric analysis and somatic chromosome counting. The period 66-72 h after pollination was the most suitable for high temperature-induced triploid production during embryo sac development in the ‘Zheyin3#’. Cytological analysis showed that the frequency of eight-nucleate embryo sacs rose at an increased rate during 66-78 h after pollination, which suggested that the third mitosis during embryo sac development could be the optimal stage for high temperature-induced triploid production. The highest frequency of triploid production was 40%, which was obtained in the 44°C for 2 h treatment 72 h after pollination. In view of both triploid number and production efficiency, treatments with 41°C for 4-6 h or with 44°C for 2 h during 66-72 h after pollination were both effective for triploid induction in ‘Zheyin3#’. Statistical analysis showed that the growth of triploids and diploids was not significantly different. However, highly significant differences were observed for all leaf characteristics. Finally, the significance of high temperature treatment in Populus triploid breeding programs is discussed.
The performance of a new anion exchanger prepared from raw cassava straw (RCS), for the removal of nitrate from aqueous solutions was evaluated in this study. The cassava straw was modified by epichlorohydrin in the presence of pyridine. The influencing factors, adsorption kinetics, and thermodynamics model of nitrate adsorption onto the modified cassava straw (MCS) were studied. The results showed that the zeta potentials of RCS and MCS were -20.5 mV and +37.3 mV, nitrogen contents (N %) of RCS and MCS were 0.43 and 4.96%, respectively. The best nitrate removal results was reached at 0.2 g of adsorbent dosage and pH range of 6.0÷12.0. The modified cassava straw adsorbed nitrate(V) quickly, reaching equilibrium within 30 minutes. The kinetics of nitrate adsorption at different initial concentrations (25, 50 and 75 mg/dm3) all fit a second order reaction. The adsorption rates were controlled by both membrane diffusion and intra-particle diffusion. The adsorption data fit the Freundlich adsorption isotherm and the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacity was 2.14, 2.00 and 1.81 mmol/dm3 at 293, 303, and 313 K, respectively.
Efficient methods for obtaining unreduced female gametes are needed for triploid induction in Populus alba x P. glandulosa. A cytological study of MMCs and PMCs meiosis and staminate floral elongation revealed that there was a close association between MMCs meiotic stage and male bud phenology during development under the same environment conditions. Female buds of Populus alba x P. glandulosa were treated with 0.5% colchicine solution at the selected meiotic stages based on male bud phenology. The treated buds were pollinated with pollen of P. tomentosa. A high rate of unreduced female gametes occurred in late leptotene and pachytene stages of MMC, as evidenced by a relatively higher percentage of triploids in the progeny, when compared to progeny from colchincine application at other meiotic stages. The present results demonstrated that male bud phenology can be used to guide colchicine applications to female buds and cause a more efficient production of triploids.
Diploid (2n) eggs were induced by treating developing embryo sacs of Populus with colchicine solution, in order to produce triploid plants. The optimal pollinated time of female catkins was confirmed as timing point for each treatment. When female catkins of P. pseudo-simonii x P. nigra ‘Zheyin3#’ had become 5.62 ± 0.13 cm long 84 h after they emerged from their bract scales and all stigmas were exposed, pistils all over the entire catkin had optimal stigma receptivity. Observation of paraffin sections showed that embryo sac development of ‘Zheyin3#’, which initiated 12 h before pollination and finished 132 h after pollination, was a successive and asynchronous process. Generative cell division of pollen of the male parent P. x beijingensis took place 3-16 h after pollination. Catkins of 18-96 h after pollination of ‘Zheyin3#’ were treated with colchicine solution. In the progeny, twenty three triploids were detected by chromosome counting and the highest rate of triploids was 66.7% in one treatment. The rate of triploid yield was positively correlated with the frequency of four-nucleate embryo sacs (r = 0.6721, p = 0.0981) and was not significantly correlated with the percentages of uni-, twoand eight-nucleate embryo sac (r = -0.1667, p = 0.7210, r = -0.3069, p = 0.5031 and r = 0.0189, p = 0.9679, respectively), suggesting that the third mitotic division of embryo sac may be the effective stage to induce 2n eggs. Through this approach, completely homozygous 2n eggs can be produced. Its significance for plant breeding is discussed.
The yellow-feather broiler is a popular poultry breed in Asia, particularly in China. In this study, we performed RNA-seq analysis to identify differentially expressed genes (deGs) in the liver of yellow-feather broilers that had been subjected to acute heat stress treatment (38±1°C for 4 h, recovery 2 h) and determine the response of the liver to high temperature and its effects on yellow-feather broiler physiology. We found that the cloacal temperature and respiratory rate of yellow-feather chickens were significantly increased immediately after the initiation of acute heat stress (38°c) treatment. And after recovery for 2 h, there was no difference in the cloacal temperature and respiratory rate between the acute heat stress and control groups. A total of 834 DEGs were observed in response to heat stress by RNA-seq. Almost half of the DEGs were involved in the lipid and energy metabolism, including fatty acid metabolism (ACOX1, ACACA, ACSL1, ACSL6, ACAA1, ACAA2, HADHB, and FASN) and propanoate metabolism (ACSS2, ALDH2, ACACA, DLAT, ALDH7A1, MDH1, ME1, ABAT, SUCLG2, and ACSS3). Our findings provide the context for RNA-seq studies in the liver of yellow-feather chickens and suggest that the liver of yellow-feather broilers has the lipid and energy metabolism physiological mechanisms activated in response to heat stress.