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Open access

Ewa Skotarczak, Ewa Bakinowska and Kamila Tomaszyk

Abstract

A nonlinear statistical approach was used to evaluate the efficiency of plant protection products. The methodology presented can be implemented when the observations in an experiment are recorded as success or failure. This occurs, for example, when following the application of a herbicide or pesticide, a single weed or insect is classified as alive (failure) or dead (success). Then a higher probability of success means a higher efficiency of the tested product. Using simulated data sets, a comparison was made of three methods based on the logit, probit and threshold models, with special attention to the effect of sample size and number of replications on the accuracy of the estimation of probabilities.

Open access

Krzysztof Moliński, Anita Dobek and Kamila Tomaszyk

Summary

This paper demonstrates the possible conclusions which can be drawn from an analysis of entropy and information. Because of its universality, entropy can be widely used in different subjects, especially in biomedicine. Based on simulated data the similarities and differences between the grouping of attributes and testing of their independencies are shown. It follows that a complete exploration of data sets requires both of these elements. A new concept introduced in this paper is that of normed information gain, allowing the use of any logarithm in the definition of entropy.

Open access

Agnieszka A. Pilarska, Krzysztof Pilarski, Antoni Ryniecki, Kamila Tomaszyk, Jacek Dach and Agnieszka Wolna-Maruwka

Abstract

This paper provides the analysis of results of biogas and methane yield for vegetable dumplings waste: dough with fat, vegetable waste, and sludge from the clarifier. Anaerobic digestion of food waste used in the experiments was stable after combining the substrates with a digested pulp composed of maize silage and liquid manure (as inoculum), at suitable ratios. The study was carried out in a laboratory scale using anaerobic batch reactors, at controlled (mesophilic) temperature and pH conditions. The authors present the chemical reactions accompanying biodegradation of the substrates and indicate the chemical compounds which may lead to acidification during the anaerobic digestion. An anaerobic digestion process carried out with the use of a dough-and-fat mixture provided the highest biogas and methane yields. The following yields were obtained in terms of fresh matter: 242.89 m3 Mg−1 for methane and 384.38 m3 Mg−1 for biogas, and in terms of volatile solids: 450.73 m3 Mg−1 for methane and 742.40 m3 Mg−1 for biogas. Vegetables and sludge from the clarifier (as fresh matter) provided much lower yields.