Just as contemporary cartographic works, old maps were usually made for specific purposes, e.g. related to taxation, propaganda or military objectives. C. d’Örken’s map of Lublin of 1716 is an example of a cartographic work created for military purposes, as it was made in the context of negotiations of the Tarnogród Confederation. The author of the map focused on the thematic content – he marked control zones, as well as military outposts, and accommodation sites. In many instances, the base content is presented with little attention to detail. There are a few exceptions to this rule, with fortifications being the most noticeable one. It was most likely motivated by the author’s profession, as he was a military engineer. Still, although Lublin has never been a particularly well-fortified city, the aforementioned content of the map perfectly reflects not only the former shape of the city space, but also its contemporary organisation. This article, due to its detailed description of selected works and the methodology involving the use of old cartographic materials, can be used as an important source material for archaeological, restoration and regeneration works.
The paper deals with the introductory analysis of the real estate market of a suburban commune located near a big (voivodeship capital) city. The analysis is based mainly of the cartographic method of research. Besides data mining and preparation, maps play an important role here, presenting values acquired directly from the register of notarial deeds of estate sales and purchases, as well as values resulting from statistic computation, for example mean values of area or price, absolute numbers of transactions or real estate type. The spatial factor is also taken into consideration when it comes to more complex or specific analyses. The influence of distance understood as a metric and time factor, as well as regression analysis results are also visualized on maps. Such presentation is a good step towards advanced analyses providing maps are prepared according to the rules of cartography. The paper stresses that a map can be a great tool in aiding every stage of research, but may also cause misinterpretations and false conclusions when at least basic rules are not complied with.
The article reviews a methodology of using early maps and other cartographic materials in the past environment studies. The application of the cartographic method of research is presented on examples from different research fields, but cases from the Earth Science are analysed deeper - from hydrography, through geomorphology to many aspects of economic geography. What is broadly described is a detection of human interaction with the nature: all traces that are marked by settlement, land use, communication, etc. This paper shows that the past environment, with its ways of use and topology can be recreated using early maps. These materials help finding hidden marks from the past, saved in abandoned orchards, old roads composed into modern network, toponyms storing past spatial relations, etc. It is also shown that analyses of early maps have to be conveyed with great care and responsibility, especially when it comes to geometric properties of old cartographic materials. The Geographic Information System (GIS) is helpful in such a situation, but its use is more profound. In this paper GIS is described as a tool being a great step forward in the applications of cartographic method of research and many examples of such applications in the field of a landscape analyses are given - from simple yet informative numeric outcomes of research to 3D virtual creations of long-gone landscapes.
The article presents the use of historical Polish post-war topographic maps and their usefulness in the detection and assessment of environmental changes caused by 20th century urbanisation. The case study area is the Polish city of Lublin. Two main research questions are defined and answered. The first is what kinds of maps can be used to trace environmental changes as well as to find the present-day remains of past environments and what is the reliability of these maps? Several series of topographic maps are used here together with aerial photography. The second research question is what changes can be found by comparing spatial sources and what features can be found today with the help of early maps. The main features investigated in this section are linear (road networks) and areal (orchards) supplemented with point features of various kinds (trees, wells, shrines). The quality of cartographic information is assessed and remnants of the past environment are discovered.
The paper deals with the application of Geographic Information System software in cartographic data presentation in the field of historical data mining. Lists of soldiers buried in the I world war cemeteries near Jasło were used. The prepared database helped to create series of maps, mainly diagram maps, that serve as a useful statistical and demographic characteristics of the phenomena. The authors stressed advantages of the solution used and the usefulness of historical data in spatial database preparation process. The shortages of the GIS software itself were also pointed out, especially as long as cartographic editing and methodology principles are concerned.