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Open access

Kai Wang, Zhihua Pei and Guixue Hu

Abstract

To improve our understanding of Feline calicivirus (FCV) infection in cats in Northeast China, 1584 serum samples from 974 domestic cats and 610 stray cats were collected between 2012 and 2015. The samples were tested for FCV antibodies using a commercially available ELISA kit. The results revealed an overall seroprevalence of 37.56% (595/1584), a seroprevalence in domestic cats of 32.85% (320/974) and a seroprevalence in stray cats of 45.08% (275/610). Risk factor analysis indicated that species was the only risk factor for the presence of FCV (OR=1.678, 95% CI=1.362-2.066, P<0.001); age, season, region and gender were not risk factors. This is the first report of FCV infection in stray cats in China, and the results of this study can aid in FCV infection control in the felidae family.

Open access

Kai Wang, Jin Cai, Shulian Xie, Jia Feng and Ting Wang

Abstract

Polygonum orientale with beautiful red flowers can be found as one dominant species in the vicinity of most water bodies and wetlands in China. However, its phytoremediation potential has not been sufficiently explored because little is known about its resistance to inorganic or organic pollutants. We investigated P. orientale response to low and moderate levels of phenol stress (≤ 80 mg L-1). Endpoints included phenol tolerance of P. orientale and the removal of the pollutant, antioxidant enzyme activities, damage to the cell membrane, osmotic regulators and photosynthetic pigments. In plant leaves, phenol stress significantly increased the activities of peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), as well as the contents of proline, soluble sugars and carotenoids, whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD), H2O2 and electrolyte leakage (EL) levels remained unaltered. On the other hand, there were significant decreases of soluble protein and chlorophyll contents. We demonstrated that, in combination with phenol tolerance and its removal, P. orientale has efficient protection mechanisms against phenol-induced oxidative damage (≤ 80 mg L-1). We propose that P. orientale could be used as an alternative and interesting material in the phytoremediation of phenol.

Open access

Hongcheng Zhang, Xue Wang, Kai Wang and Chunyang Li

Abstract

Bee pollen has been used for many years in traditional medicine and supplementary nutrients. Bee pollen is mainly composed of nutrients and bioactive substances which might act as potential antioxidants and tyrosinase inhibitors. In this study, 14 species of monofloral bee pollen from China were collected to analyse their antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory properties. Our results revealed that virtually all the bee pollen samples possessed powerful antioxidant or tyrosinase inhibitory activities. These properties varied greatly depending on the fl oral species and extraction solvents. To extract phenolics of various species of bee pollen, the most effective solvent may be a solvent which is a 75 wt. % ethanol/water. Extracts of wuweizi, rape, phellodendron, apricot, and dandelion pollen had stronger antioxidant activities; on the other hand, those of apricot, camellia, and sunflower presented excellent tyrosinase inhibitory activities. In addition, we may have found a novel discovery: that apricot pollen exhibits both powerful antioxidant and strong tyrosinase inhibitory activities.

Open access

Kai Wang, Hui Wang and Yu Tao

Abstract

Collecting ideas through crowdsourcing has become a common practice for companies to benefit from external ideas and innovate. It is desirable that crowd members build on each other's ideas to achieve synergy. This study proposes and verifies a new method for idea combination which can result in combined ideas that are both novel and useful. The domain-specific knowledge of crowd members does not influence the effectiveness of such idea combination. The new method can be used for collecting highly creative ideas from the crowd. The implications for future research are discussed.

Open access

Kai Wang, Yu Qi, Shushuai Yi, Zhihua Pei, Na Pan and Guixue Hu

Abstract

Introduction: The aim of the experiment was to establish the enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 (ETEC K88)-induced BALB/c mouse duodenum inflammation model. Material and Methods: Mice were administered different concentrations of E. coli K88 (1.0 × 107-109 CFU/mL) for 3 d by means of an esophageal catheter. Results: The results showed that the treated group expressed several significant clinical symptoms, such as reduced dietary demands and weight loss, an increased presence of IL-1α, TNF-α, and MPO in the peripheral blood, and some pathological changes in the duodenum. On the 6th-8th days, the body weight of the mice was the lowest. On the 8th day, there were significant differences in IL-1α, TNF-α, and MPO levels compared to the control group (P < 0.05), the gap between the duodenum mucous layer and the muscular layer had widened, the number of goblet cells was increased, and the inflammatory infiltrate and inflammation changes in the lamina propria and the mucous layer were the most obvious. Conclusion: The duodenum inflammation was the most severe on day 8; thus, the model was successfully established. In addition, varying concentrations of ETEC K88 did not significantly influence the duodenum inflammation (P > 0.05).

Open access

Gang Xiong, Zhi-yong Huang, Kai-chan Cai, Ruijing Cai, Jun Zhang and Wu-jun Wang

Differentially Expressed Proteins between Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Adjacent Normal Esophageal Tissue

Proteomics was employed to identify the differentially expressed proteins between esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and adjacent normal esophageal tissues. ESCC tissues and adjacent normal tissues were obtained from 10 patients with ESCC and the proteins were extracted and subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). The differentially expressed proteins were identified after image analysis, and matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) was used to confirm these proteins. Immunohistochemistry was then performed to detect the expressions of HSP27 and ANX1 in ESCC tissues and adjacent normal tissues. A total of 6 differentially expressed proteins were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting, among which SCCA1, KRT4 and ANX1 were down-regulated and TIM1, MnSOD and HSP27 up-regulated in the ESCC. Immunohistochemistry showed HSP27 was highly expressed in the ESCC which, however, had a low expression of ANX1. These findings were consistent with those in proteomics. There were differentially expressed proteins between ESCC and adjacent normal tissues. The investigation of differentially expressed proteins between ESCC and normal esophageal tissue may provide evidence for the molecular pathogenesis of ESCC.

Open access

Guoqing Wang, Jun Wang, Ming Li, Yaguang Zheng and Kai Wang

Abstract

Traditional image contrast enhancement methods originally cannot improve the quality of vein images and may also import some unknown noise resulting in low recognition rate. To overcome the abovementioned disadvantages, the paper proposes an enhancement method based on the morphological filtering theory including three main procedures. Firstly, the algorithm extract the vein Region Of Interest (ROI), and then adopting the improved White Top-Hat transform (WTH) and Black Top-Hat transform (BTH) methods to get the features of vein in detail in both white and black pattern (vein information and background information); Secondly, to construct the filtering function with the self-designed controlling operator, representing the gradient changes of the vein edges, which well reflects the importance of local detail in multi-scale pattern; Finally, traditional nonlinear gray-level transformation function is imported with modality to the parameters to realize the gray normalization. We perform rigorous experiments with the proposed method and other state-of-the-art enhancement methods on the self-built dorsal vein image databases, and the experimental results illustrate that the multiscale top-hat theory-based enhancement methods improve the contrast of hand vein images with restrictions on the possibility of enhancement on existing noise information.